Faraday's Law

What is Faraday’s Law?

Before we understand Faraday's law, let us first understand what is electromagnetic induction. 

Electromagnetic induction is a phenomenon that induces a current in the circuit. This happens due to the change in the magnetic field.

The current in the wire is caused due to the movement of wire in the magnetic field or change in the strength of the magnetic field with passing time. Both these situations can result in the flow of current in the wire. 

Electromotive force is viewed as an amount of energy that induces a flow of current through a circuit. The electromotive motive force that is generated in a wire due to the change in the magnitude of current in a coupled coil is called “mutual inductance”.

Faraday’s law of EMI “electromagnetic induction”, is also called the law of electromagnetism. This law explains the operational principle of electric generators, electric inductors, electrical transformers, and electric motors. It helps in understanding important points that leads to the electromagnetic induction or production of electricity. Faraday’s law is conducted to see the way magnetic fields change due to the flow of current in wires. 

This law was first projected in 1831 by a chemist and physicist “Michael Faraday”. Because of him, the law got its name. Faraday’s law is the outcome of the observations of the three main experiments that he had conducted. Through these experiments, he found the principle of electromagnetic induction.


Faraday’s First Law

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

The first law of Faraday’s electromagnetic induction explains that when a wire is kept in a field that experiences constant change in its magnetic field, then an electromagnetic field is developed. This phenomenon of development of the electromagnetic field is called an induced emf. If it is a closed circuit, then a current also gets induced inside the circuit. It is called “Induced Current”.


Ways of Changing the Magnetic Field

There are basically four means to change the magnetic field in a circuit. 

  • By rotation of the coil in relation to the magnet.

  • By movement of the coil into the magnetic field or outside the magnetic field.

  • By modifying the region of a coil that is kept in the magnetic field.

  • By movement of a magnet in the direction of the coil or against the direction of the coil. 


Faraday’s Second Law

Now let us understand the second law of Faraday. This is another law by Faraday on Electromagnetic Induction. The law explains that the emf induced in a conductor is equivalent to the rate at which the flux linked to the circuit changes. Here, this flux is the product of the flux in the wire and the number of turns present in the wire. 


Faraday’s Law Formula

Let us see how Faraday’s law was established. Let us first understand the terms:


ε = the emf or electromotive force

Φ = the magnetic flux

N = the total number of turns in the coil

The rate at which the magnetic flux changes through the circuit is equal to the amount of the electromotive force (ε) developed in the circuit. The above statement can be written in the following equation as: 

ε = dt / dΦ

The electromotive force or EMF is the difference in the potential developed across an “unloaded loop”. This happens when the resistance present in the circuit reaches a high level. As EMF and voltage, both are measured in voltage, so one can consider EMF as voltage too.

There is another important law that described electromotive force, like Faraday’s law. 

Lenz's law was postulated in 1833 by Heinrich Lenz. Where Faraday's law describes the amount of the EMF generated inside the circuit, Lenz's law tells about the direction of the flow of current in the circuit. The law explains that the direction of the current will be opposite to the direction of flux that produced it. In other words, the direction of any magnetic field generated by the “induced current” is opposite to the modification in the actual field.

Lenz's law comes at the same conclusion as made by Faraday's law. The only difference is the (minus “-“ sign). This negative sign is an indication that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of induced emf have opposite signs.

ε =− dt/dΦ

If there are N number of turns in the coil, then the total magnetic induction in a coil is represented as ε = −N dt/dΦ


​Faraday’s Experiment

Relationship Between Induced EMF and Flux:

(Image will be Uploaded Soon)

In the first Faraday’s law, it was stated that when the total strength of magnetic field changes, then only it induces a current in the circuit. This was proved by connecting an ammeter to the wire loop. This ammeter gets deflected with the movement of the magnet in the direction of the wire.

In Faraday's second experiment, it was stated that when the current passes through the iron rod, it makes it electromagnetic in nature. He also observed that due to relative motion between the coil and the magnet, an induced electromagnetic force gets produced. 

  • When the magnet rotates about the axis, then no EMF is produced whereas when the magnet rotates on its axis, then it produces induced EMF. When the magnet is stationary or fixed at its place, then no deflection was observed in the ammeter. 

  • When the magnet moves close to the coil, the voltage that was measured rose to its peak. 

  • When the magnet moves away from the wire, the amount of voltage generated is in the opposite direction of the loop.

The 3rd experiment was conducted and recorded. In this experiment, when the coil was stationary it produced no deflection in the galvanometer. Thus, zero induced current was generated in the coil. But, when the magnet moved far from the circuit, then the ammeter shown deflection away from the loop.



After conducting the above experiments, Faraday reached the inference that if there is relative motion between a wire and a magnetic field, then the total amount of flux linkage in the coil changes. This change in flux generates a voltage in the coil.

The law also states that with the change in the magnetic flux with time, the EMF or electromotive force gets produced. 


Applications of Faraday’s Law

Below are Some of the Important Uses of Faraday’s law:

  • Transformers and other electric devices operate on the principle of Faraday’s law.

  • Induction cooker also operates on the principle of mutual induction that is in turn based on Faraday’s law.

  • Inducing an EMF into an electro-magnetic flowmeter helps in recording the speed of the flow of liquids.