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Migraine Symptoms - NEET

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Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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Migraine: An Introduction

Migraine is defined as throbbing pain in one area of the head that lasts 4 to 72 hours and is coupled with symptoms such as light or sound sensitivity, nausea, and vomiting. Some people have visual disturbances (auras) that appear as flashing lights before or during a migraine. 


Despite popular opinion, according to data, migraine headaches affect around 20% of the population. In this article, migraine symptoms and treatment, causes, and types of migraine are discussed.


What is Migraine?

Migraine is a hereditary disorder characterised by persistent headache attacks that vary in intensity, frequency, and duration. Attacks are often unilateral and are accompanied by anorexia, nausea, and vomiting.


What are Migraine Symptoms?

Migraines, which afflict adolescents and teens as well as adults, can go through four stages: prodrome, aura, attack, and post-drome.


Prodrome

The first stage might last a few hours or days. It is possible that one will not encounter it because it does not occur every time. It is referred to as the "preheadache" or "premonitory" phase by others.

  • Constipation

  • Changes in mood, from sadness to euphoria

  • Cravings for food

  • Stiffness in the neck

  • Elevated urination

  • Retention of fluid

  • Yawning often

Aura

The aura phase might last up to 60 minutes or as little as five minutes. The majority of people do not have an aura, while others have both the aura and the headache at the same time.

  • Uncontrollable movements

  • Flashing lights are examples of visual symptoms.

  • Visual impairment

  • The feeling of pins and needles in an arm or leg

  • Numbness

  • Communication difficulties

  • Hearing noises that do not exist

Attack

The headache might persist anywhere from four to 72 hours. The word "ache" does not do the agony credit because it can be moderate at times, but it is generally described as drilling, throbbing, or having the sensation of an icepick in your brain. It usually starts on one side of your head and progresses to the other.

  • It frequently feels like a tremendous throbbing or pulsating ache.

  • It just affects one side of your head or one of your eyes.

  • It might last anywhere from 4 to 72 hours.

  • You are extremely sensitive to light, to the point where you may need to retire to a darker area.

  • You are also very sensitive to fragrances, noises, and touch.

  • You may feel sick to your stomach or vomit.

  • You could feel dizzy or faint.

  • Your eyesight may get fuzzy.

Postdrome

This stage lasts for a day or two. It is commonly referred to as a migraine "hangover," and it affects 80 per cent of migraine sufferers.

  • Elated

  • drained and cleaned

  • Baffled

  • Dizzy

  • Light and sound sensitivity

Complete List of Migraine Symptoms


Complete List of Migraine Symptoms


Chronic Migraine Symptoms

A migraine is classified as chronic when it happens at least 15 days per month. The strength of the discomfort and the symptoms may fluctuate on a regular basis. Chronic migraine sufferers may use headache pain relievers more than 10 to 15 days per month, which might, regrettably, contribute to headaches that occur more frequently.


Vestibular Migraine Symptoms

Vestibular migraine can induce vestibular or balance symptoms in addition to or instead of a headache. Vestibular migraines can cause a variety of symptoms, severe migraine symptoms include the following:

  • A headache that is severe and throbbing, generally on one side of the head.

  • Vomiting and nausea.

  • Light, scent, and noise sensitivity.

Migraine Causes

Experts believe that migraine attacks are caused by changes in the brain, brain migraine symptoms are because of that impact on the:

  • Nerve communication.

  • Blood vessels.

  • Chemical equilibrium.

Having a family history of cancer may also play a role. A trusted migraine source is a common risk factor.


Migraine triggers differ from one individual to the next. They frequently include:

Hormonal changes, such as menstruation, emotional triggers, such as stress, depression, anxiety, and excitement, and dietary factors, such as alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, nuts, cheese, citrus fruits, and foods containing the additives tyramine and monosodium glutamate (MSG), medications, such as sleeping pills, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and some birth control pills.


Migraine Treatment

  • Beta-blockers: Propranolol LA 60 mg/d, rising to 160 mg/d as required. Diabetes and reactive airway disease (e.g., asthma) are frequently contraindicated. Beta-blockers may aggravate depression. Nadolol has fewer CNS adverse effects; it is begun at 20 mg/d and gradually raised up to 120 mg/d as needed.

  • Calcium Channel Blockers: Diltiazem CD 120 mg/d, rising to 240-480 mg total/d as tolerated, sometimes in two split doses. The most common adverse effects are constipation and hypotension, but this is generally the most well-tolerated regimen.

  • Erenumab (Aimovig) is a calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP-R) antagonist that was licensed in 2018 for use as a monthly injection to prevent migraines.

Summary

Migraine is a frequent clinical condition defined by episodic bouts of severe headache, migraine signs and symptoms include nausea, and sensitivity to light, sound, or head movement. It is commonly assumed to be a headache condition, but it has been made clear that many individuals who suffer from migraine do not have severe headaches as a prominent symptom. 


These individuals may report dizziness, ear discomfort, ear or head fullness, "sinus" pressure, or even variable hearing loss as their predominant symptom. Fortunately, long-established treatment regimens for "classic" migraine headaches are often successful against these "atypical" migraine symptoms.


Migraine affects an estimated 10% of the world's population, is most frequent in those aged 20 to 50, and is about three times more common in women than in males. 

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FAQs on Migraine Symptoms - NEET

1. What are the four common types of headaches?

There are four types of headaches: sinus, tension, migraine, and cluster. Primary and secondary headaches are always distinguished. A primary headache is one that is not the result of another ailment or illness. Stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, missing meals, and certain processed foods are all causes of primary headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by another ailment, such as an accident, infection, or illness, and can range from insignificant to deadly.

2. List the home remedies for migraine pain relief.

Many lifestyle remedies can help lower the frequency and intensity of migraine attacks.

  • Eating a well-balanced diet.

  • Exercise on a regular basis.

  • Caffeine and alcohol should be avoided.

  • Maintain a consistent sleep routine.

  • Yoga can aid in pain management and relaxation.

  • Techniques for stress management and relaxation.

  • Acupuncture.

  • Avoid or restrict exposure to recognised triggers.

3. Briefly describe the forms of migraine headaches.

Migraines come in a variety of forms, including:

  • Common migraine (approximately 80% of all migraines) with no "aura."

  • Classic migraines (also known as migraines with aura) are more severe than typical migraines and feature an aura before the headache.

  • Silent (or acephalgic) migraine occurs when there is no head pain, yet there is an aura and other migraine symptoms.

  • Hemiplegic migraine symptoms, such as weakness on one side of the body, loss of sensation, or a sense of 'pins and needles,’ might resemble a stroke.

  • Retinal migraine causes transient visual loss in one eye that can last anywhere between minutes and months. 

  • Chronic migraine lasts over an extended period of time.