Sycon is a marine sponge which is found attached to the rocks, corals and shells of molluscs. Sponges are the members of the phylum porifera. There are approximately 5000 living species of sponges in the world. These are divided into 3 different groups based on the presence or composition of spicules or spongin.
Let us know more about sycon, its structure, scientific classification, characteristics, canal system, their nutrition, respiration and nutrition.
The classification of sycon is given below.
Geographic Range of Sycon
It is a marine sponge found across the world, generally in shallow water but not more than 150 meters deep. They are predominant. Also, they are commonly found in the arctic ocean, pacific ocean, Indian ocean etc.
Habitat of Sycon
Habitat Region -
Temperature - that region of the Earth between 23.5 degrees North and 60 degrees North.
Region - mainly lives in oceans, seas, or other bodies of saltwater.
Aquatic Biomes -
Benthic - Lives at the bottom of a body of water.
Reef - Reef is the structure produced by the calcium carbonate skeletons of coral polyps.
Coastal - It is the nearshore aquatic habitat near the coast.
Other Habitat Features
Structure of Sycon
Characteristics of Sycon
Canal System of Sycon
The body of the sycon contains pores and canals which results in the formation of a canal system of sycon. This canal system is used to draw watercurrent inside the body. The food and oxygen is transported inside the body through the water current.
The composition of canal system of sycon is as follows:
In sycon reproduction we can observe both sexual and asexual modes.
In asexual mode they produce buds and in some cases it produces special structures called gemmules.
In sexual mode, the female gametes and male gametes are produced from the archaeocytes present in mesoglea. The sperm cells have long tails and can swim freely in the water current. The ova can wander in mesoglea.
The sperm cell does not enter the ova directly. But the sperm moves nearer to the egg by the assistance of the choanocyte.
The early development is seen inside the mother sponge. When the development is complete, it is moved to a radial canal and from there it emerges.
The sycon respiration is carried out by a simple diffusion process.
Current of Water in Sycon
The flow of water in sycon is maintained by continuous flagellar beating of choanocytes. So, the water rushes along the external surface and enters inside the body through ostia. Through prosopyle, the water flows inside the radial canal (from the incurrent canal).
Function of water current in this sponge:
By means of this current, exchanges between the sponge body and the external medium takes place.
With the help of this water current, food and oxygen is brought into the body.
The excreta is taken out of the body by the water current.
The water current carries out the reproductive bodies into the body of the sponges .
Answer the following MCQs :
(i) A sycon is a type of marine ______.
Ans: (b) it is a type of marine sponge.
(ii) Which of the following sponge is found in the river?
Ans: c) Spongilla
(iii) Sycon belongs to which of the following groups of animals?
(a) multicellular organisms without any tissue organization
(b) multicellular organisms and which a gastrovascular system
(c) multicellular organisms which have tissue organization, but have no body cavity.
(d) unicellular organisms or acellular organisms
Ans: (a) multicellular organisms without any tissue organization
Answer the following :
(i) What is sycon ciliatum?
(ii) List out the points of differences between sycon and hydra.
(i) Sycon ciliatum is a sycon species (calcareous sponge) which belongs to the family Sycettidaephylum.
It's specification are:
Kingdom - Animalia
Phylum - Porifera
Class - Calcarea
Order - Leucosolenida
Family - Sycettidae
Genus - Sycon
Species - S. ciliatum
It is a type of small purse sponge which grows singly or in a small group from single holdfast. It's length is upto 5 centimeter. It has a covering of fine papillae on its surface. This gives it the furry look. It's skeleton consists of tangential layers of triactines and tetractines. This specie is different from the other species because in this, the choanocyte chambers are free from each other and are not fused. It is commonly found along the coasts of Europe and also seen on the eastern fringes of the Atlantic Ocean.
(ii) Sycon and hydra differ from each other in the following ways :
Sycon belongs to the phylum Porifera (which shows cellular level organization) whereas Hydra belongs to the phylum Coelenterata (which has tissue-level organization).
Sycons are asymmetric whereas hydra are radially symmetric.
Sycons are mostly marine animals (few of them are also freshwater organisms) but Hydra is always a freshwater organism.
Sycons eat tiny organic particles that float in the water flow. Hydra are carnivorous and eat small insects and the insects with larvae.
Sycons do not have a mouth whereas hydra have a mouth.
Sycons are found deeper than the hydra plants .