What is the Endocrine System
The human endocrine system is composed of various ductless glands that secrete various important hormones in the body. These hormones perform many functions starting from mood regulation, development and growth, metabolism, mechanism of action of organs and so on. The primary function of the endocrine system is to check how hormones are released, depending upon the level of hormones produced and other substances present in the blood.
Endocrine Glands in the Human Body
Hypothalamus: Main functions of the hypothalamus include regulating body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleep, emotions, moods and even regulates the release of various hormones from the endocrine glands.
Thymus Gland: The thymus secretes hormone thymosin which stimulates the production of T cells in the body which plays an important role in immunity.
Pineal Gland: This small gland is believed to be involved in the production of the sleep-regulating hormone melatonin.
Pituitary Gland: The pituitary gland influences the growth and development of an individual.
Parathyroid Gland: This gland secretes hormones which help regulate calcium levels in the body.
Thyroid Gland: The thyroid gland is responsible for secreting thyroid hormones and calcitonin that regulate metabolism and calcium absorption,
Adrenal Gland: The hormones secreted by Adrenal gland regulate cortisol and stress hormones, a hormone responsible for raising blood glucose level.
Pancreas: Pancreas produces insulin in the body, a hormone that maintains blood sugar levels.
Testes and Ovaries: Testes are responsible for the production of sperm. Just like testes, ovaries are the glands that produce female sex hormones.
Solved MCQs on Endocrine System
1. This is Not a Function of Insulin
(a) Decreasing glycogenolysis
2. The Action of Parathormone in the Human Body
(a) Decreases blood sodium level
(b) Increases blood sodium level
(c) Decreases blood calcium level
(d) Increases blood calcium level
3. Effects of Hypothyroidism Include All but This
(d) Weight gain
(a) Accelerates protein synthesis within cells
(b) Accelerates the conversion of glycogen into glucose
(c) Decreases the conversion of glycogen into glucose
(d) Slows down glucose formation from lactic acid
5. Pituitary Hormone Triggering the Male Testes to Generate Sperm and in Females, Triggering Follicular Development Every Month Is
(b) Growth hormone
(c) Follicle-stimulating hormone
(d) Luteinizing hormone
6. This Hormone Is Responsible for the “Fight-or-Flight” Response
(a) Thyroxine and melatonin
(b) Insulin and glucagon
(c) Epinephrine and norepinephrine
(d) Oestrogen and progesterone
7. Difference Between Endocrine and Exocrine Glands is That
(a) Endocrine glands release hormones while exocrine glands release waste
(b) Endocrine glands are interconnected but exocrine glands are totally independent from each other.
(c) Endocrine glands are formed by epithelial tissue, exocrine glands are connective
(d) Endocrine glands are ductless, exocrine glands release secretions into ducts or at the surface of the body
8. This Hormone is Not Secreted by Hypothalamus
9. This is the Most Abundant Hormone Produced by the Anterior Pituitary
10. This is Not an Endocrine Gland
11. Which of the Following Hormones Are Expected to Increase in the Body After Consuming a Banana Split?
(d) Thyroid hormone
12. Which of These is a Male Sex Hormone?
13. Insufficient Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Adults Cause-------------
14. Hypothyroidism or an Underactive Thyroid Gland in Children Causes -------------------
15. Which of the Following Hormones Regulate Blood Sodium and Potassium Levels in the Body?
16. In Which of the Following Pairs, the Hormone of Endocrine Glands and Its Primary Action Is Incorrect or Mismatched?
Calcitonin - Lower blood calcium levels
Parathyroid - Raises blood calcium levels
Somatostatin - Inhibits release of glucagon
Melatonin - Regulates the rate of cellular metabolism
17. Where Are Islets of Langerhans Found?
18. Diabetes Mellitus Is a Hormonal Condition in Which
Ketone bodies increases in urine
Ketone bodies decreases in urine
Urine becomes more dilute
None of the above
19. Pituitary Gland, Which is Also the Master Endocrine Gland Is Controlled by Which of the Following?
None of the above
20. What Does Somatostatin Do?
Inhibits release of insulin and glucagon
Stimulates release of insulin and glucagon
Stimulates glucagon release while inhibits insulin release
Inhibits glucagon release while stimulates insulin release
21. Which of the Following Endocrine Glands Contributes to Setting the Body's Biological Clock?