Important Notes on Reproduction in Organisms for NEET Biology

A Brief Overview of Reproduction in Organisms

Biology is the most important segment in NEET, for it carries the most weightage. In total, 90 questions are asked from biology that carries a total of 360 marks.

There are several topics that are in the syllabus of which reproduction is of utmost importance. Therefore, if you want to excel in the exam, you must prepare important notes of biology for NEET reproduction in organisms. 

Detailed reproduction in organism NEET notes will cover the maximum number of questions in biology. Moreover, if you’re aiming to become a doctor in future, this topic will be essential to study the genetic diversity of animals.  

Types of Reproduction in Organisms

Reproduction is one of the most vital biological processes by which living organisms give birth to new organisms of same kind. It helps in maintaining diversity and continuality of life on earth. 

Reproduction works through DNA replication, cell divisions, reproduction body formation and developing them into offspring. 

The methods of reproduction can be classified into two types- Asexual and sexual reproduction. 

Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction is the form of reproduction that involves a single organism, that creates a copy of itself. The main feature of this process is mitosis. Generally, unicellular organisms and plants practise this method to reproduce. 

Following is a list of reproduction in organisms NEET notes that you can prepare

  1. Binary Fission – In this process, a cell copies its DNA and splits into two daughter cells. Each of these cells carries a copy of the parent DNA after mitosis. For example, amoeba, bacteria and most single-cellular organisms follow this process. 

  2. Budding – Some organisms split a part of them and form a new organism while staying attached to their parent cell. Once they mature, they separate from it. For example, hydra and yeast. 

  3. Vegetative Propagation – Many plants propagate through a part of their body known as propagule. Typically leaves, stems, roots are used in vegetative propagation. These parts of that plant come in contact with soil, water and nutrients and start growing as new plants. 

Some of the examples are roots- yam, sweet potato, underground stem - lotus, turmeric, bulbs - onion, lilies, tubers-potato, creepers-strawberry, leaves - kalanchoe plant.

Gardeners often use vegetative propagation artificially for economic gain. 

  1. Fragmentation – Fragmentation happens when the body of an organism breaks into two, and each of them grows into a new organism. Example: spirogyra, flatworm, etc. 

  2. Sporogenesis – It is the method of producing reproductive cells called spores. Spores generally spread via wind and does not require fertilisation. Example: sporulation occurs in several bacteria and protozoans. 

  3. Agamenogenesis – This is the process of producing sexual organisms without fertilisation. It happens in different types.

  • Parthenogenesis occurs when an unfertilised egg develops into a new organism. It posses only its mother’s genes.  

  • Apomixis takes place when a normal plant reproduces asexually due to lack of male plant to fertilise female gamete. 

  • Nucellar embryony is the process through which an embryo is formed from its parents’ tissue without using reproductive cells or mitosis. Primarily this method happens in citrus fruit. 

Sexual Reproduction 

Sexual reproduction takes place when male and female gamete fuse together through fertilisation and give birth to offspring. 

The entire process of sexual reproduction takes place in three stages.

  1. Pre-Fertilization

  1. Gametogenesis takes place in haploid cells. 

  • Homogametes – Male and female gametes look the same. They are seen in some algae. 

  • Heterogametes – In most sexually reproduced organisms, two distinct gametes can be seen. The female gamete is called egg or ovum; the male one is called sperm. 

  1. Gamete transfer – In most seed plants pollen grains carry male gametes and ovule carry the eggs. In most plants, pollination occurs when pollen grains are transferred to stigma. 

  1. Fertilisation – It involves the fusion of gametes and formation of a diploid zygote. 

  • In most aquatic creatures, fertilisation happens with the help of the medium, means outside of the body. It is called external fertilisation. 

  • In most terrestrial organisms, including mammals, birds, reptiles, it happens inside the body and is called internal fertilisation. 

  1. Post-fertilisation

  • Embryogenesis is the procedure of forming embryo from a zygote. During this process, zygote undergoes mitosis and cell differentiation. 

  • Oviparous are the animals which lay eggs and the offspring hatch out of it after incubation. Ex - reptiles, birds, etc. 

  • Viviparous animals are mostly mammals, including humans. The zygote forms inside the female body, and after certain stages, the baby is delivered. The chance of survival of these babies is higher due to embryonic protection and parental care.  

Reproduction in organisms NEET questions includes a significant part of sexual reproduction. Learn and revise this portion simultaneously so that you don’t miss any concept. 

Reproduction in organisms NEET notes also includes a few comparison charts. The difference between sexual and asexual reproduction is one of those. 

Difference between Sexual and Asexual Reproduction 

Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction 

Needs both the parents. 

Needs one parent.  

Germ cells take part. 

Somatic cells take part.

It forms gametes.

It produces asexual spores.

Offspring are of different genetic structure.

Offspring are of similar genes to parents.

Reproduction rate is faster.

Reproduction rate is slower. 

After assessing previous years’ questions, you must have noticed that reproduction in organisms NEET notes is most important to qualify the exam. For that, keep on practising the above-mentioned topics and solve as many questions as you can. Moreover, sit for mock tests to ensure that you can finish the paper on time. 

Besides, try to incorporate reproduction in organisms class 12 notes for NEET as this portion covers the maximum number of questions.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Animals that Reproduce Asexually?

Ans. There are a few animals that reproduce asexually. For example, planarians, several annelid worms like polychaetes, sea stars and various plants and fungi reproduce asexually. 

2. Which Male Animals Give Birth?

Ans. Male pipefish, sea horses, sea dragons, etc. give birth to their young. 

3. Which is the Largest Vertebrate Animal Reproduce Asexually?

Ans. A species of lizard, Komodo dragon, is known to be the largest animal that reproduces asexually.