Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon
NEET 2022 | Class 12

NEET Chapter Page - Differentiations & Conversions - Organic Chemistry

Get plus subscription and access unlimited live and recorded courses


Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
Total views: 219.9k
Views today: 3.19k

Organic conversions are simple if you understand organic compounds and reactions. To perform an organic conversion, we must first determine which molecules are necessary for each step. Most of the time, we start thinking from the rear (product) to the front (service) ( initial reactant).

We need to make butanol from ethanol, for example. We begin to consider butanal. We first consider how butanal can be prepared and then choose one of them. Then we consider how that compound can be manufactured in different ways. This process is repeated until we reach ethanol. This procedure should be used frequently.

Important Topics for Differentiations & Conversions - Organic Chemistry

  • Trends of Periodic Properties in Periodic Table and Reason of Variation

  • Name Reactions

Important Concepts for Differentiations & Conversions - Organic Chemistry Notes

Following are the important pointers for the differentiation and conversions in organic chemistry

  • The acidity of phenol and aniline, as well as benzoic acid, is increased by electron-withdrawing groups. NO2, CN, CHO, and other compounds are examples.

  • Electron donating groups diminish phenol's acidity while increasing aniline's basicity. CH3, NH2, OH, and other compounds are examples.

  • Electron donating groups are ortho-, para-directing, whereas electron-withdrawing groups are m-directing.

  • Chiral carbon atoms are those that are linked to four distinct groups.

  • The stability of the carbocation determines SN1.

  • The SN2 reaction is favoured by steric hindrance.

  • Because of steric and electrical differences, aldehydes are more reactive than ketones.

  • Due to the existence of a lone pair of electrons on the oxygen atom, alcohols act as Lewis bases.

  • Compared to amides and alcohols, amines are more basic.

  • Because of the existence of highly activating groups, amines and phenols are more reactive than benzene (-OH, -NH2)

  • Because amines have more electronegative oxygen atoms than alcohols, they are less acidic.

  • Due to stronger hydrogen bonding, primary amines have a higher boiling point than tertiary amines.

  • Because of the -I action of alkyl groups, aliphatic amines are stronger bases than aromatic amines.

  • The electrical component influences the order of basicity in a solution.

  • Acetylation protects the NH2 group before nitration. By resonance, the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen are less available for donation to the benzene ring. As a result, the -NHCOCH3 group has a stronger activating impact than the amino group.

  • From top to bottom, each group has a proclivity for forming hydrides.

  • As the strength of the M-H bond weakens, acidity rises, and the reducing character rises.

  • From top to bottom, the thermal stability and basicity diminish.

  • The boiling point rises as the van-der-Waals forces grow in proportion to the size of M.

  • The electron affinity of halogens rises from top to bottom.

  • The acidity of halogen hydrides increases from top to bottom.

  • Because of incompletely filled d-orbitals, d-d transition, and the presence of unpaired electrons, transition metals are coloured paramagnetic and form complexes.

  • Transition metals have a variety of oxidation states as well.

Solved Examples From Chapter

Question 1: A haloalkane P combines with aq. KOH to form Q, which is then oxidised with K2Cr2O7/H+ to form R, which is then Clemmensen reduced to form S. In the presence of dry ether, the molecule P reacts with sodium metal to create 2,3-dimethyl butane. Write down the chemical reaction with the letters P,Q,R, and S.


  • The reactions mentioned in the question is as follows:

  • From the given reactions it is clear that,
    P = 2 Chloropropane

    As 2-Chloropropane produces 2,3-dimethyl butane in reaction with Dry Ether in presence of sodium which gives NaCl as a by-product along with 2-Chloropropane.

  • If P = 2 Chloropropane, then under aq KOH it gives,
    Q = 2 propanol

  • Following which,
    R = propanone

    And S = propane

Key Points to Remember: Identify one compound and the rest follows. Here, the dimethylbutane can only be formed from the replacement of the chlorine atom of 2-Chloropropane leading to dimerisation. 

Question 2: Consider a possible reaction: $A \ \overset{PBr_3}{\rightarrow} \ B \ \overset{KCN}{\rightarrow} \ C \ \overset{H_2O/H^+}{\rightarrow} \ D \ \overset{P_2O_5}{\rightarrow} \ E$ The molecule A is a primary alcohol that causes the primary iodoform test to be positive. To make ethanoic acid, convert component D to ethanoic acid.


  • A primary alcohol that also gives the primary iodoform test is Ethanol.
    Hence, compound A = Ethanol = CH3CH2OH.

  • The reaction of ethanol in presence of PBr3 gives Bromoethane as Bromine replaces the hydroxyl group of the alcohol. Hence, B = Bromoethane = CH3CH2Br.

  • When bromoethane reacts with potassium cyanide, KCN, it gives propane nitrile as the cyanide ion replaces the bromide ion. Therefore, compound C = Propanenitrile = CH3CH2CN.

  • Similarly, the cyanide ion gets converted by the carboxyl group when Propanenitrile reacts with water in the H+ solution. Hence, D = Propanoic Acid = CH3CH2COOH.

  • In the presence of phosphorus pentoxide, propanoic acid gets converted to propanoic anhydride. Hence, E = Propanoic Anhydride

  • The compound D, propanoic acid is converted into Ethanoic Acid by the following set of reactions:

Key Points to Remember: Iodoform tests are the essential tests for the determination of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohol. 

Solved Examples from Previous Year Question Papers

Question 1: To prepare a pure sample of n-hexane using sodium metal as one reactant, the other reactant will be

(a) n-propyl bromide

(b) Ethyl bromide and n-butyl bromide

(c) Ethyl chloride and n-butyl chloride

(d) Methyl bromide and n -pentyl chloride


  • According to the reaction of Wurtz,
    2CH3CH2CH2Br + 2Na → CH3(CH2)4CH3 + 2NaBr.

  • As a result, (a) is the correct response.

Question 2: Sodium acetate can be converted to ethane by

(a) Heating with LiAlH4

(b) Electrolysing its aqueous solution

(c) Heating with soda lime

(d) Heating with calcium acetate


  • The reaction given in the question,
    $2CH_3COONa \ + \ 2H_2O \ \overset{\text{Electrolysis}}{\rightarrow} \ CH_3-CH_3 + 2CO_2 + 2NaOH + H_2$

  • Hence, the given answer is (b) Electrolysing its aqueous solution.

Question 3: Which of the following is oxidised by KMnO4

(a) Methane

(b) Pentane

(c) Isobutane

(d) Neopentane


  • The reaction asked in the above question when trying with isobutane is:
    $\left (  CH_3\right )_3CH \ \overset{KMnO_4}{\rightarrow} \ \left ( CH_3 \right )_3C-OH$.

  • As a result, (c) is the correct response.

Practice Organic Chemistry Conversions Questions

Question 1: A nitrogenous substance X is treated with HNO2, and the resulting product is then treated with NaOH solution, resulting in a blue coloration. X can be any nitrogenous substance.

(a) CH3CH2NH2

(b) CH3CH2NO2


(a) (CH3)2CHNO2

Answer: (a) (CH3)2CHNO2

Question 2: At room temperature, the molecule that interacts with Lucas reagent the fastest is

(a) Butan-1-ol

(b) Butan-2-ol

(c) 2-methylpropan-1-ol

(d) 2-methylpropan-2-ol

Answer: (d) 2-methylpropan-2-ol


If you understand organic molecules and reactions, organic conversions are simple. To carry out an organic conversion, we must first figure out which molecules are required for each step. We frequently shift our focus from the back (product) to the front (service) (initial reactant). Organic chemistry conversions chart pdf can be prepared for examination preparation based on different types of reactions and the interconnections between them. 

See More
NEET 2024 Important Dates

NEET 2024 Important Dates

View All Dates
NEET 2024 exam date and revised schedule have been announced by the NTA. NEET 2024 will now be conducted on 5 May 2024, and the exam registration starts on 9 February 2024 and closes on 9 March 2024. You can check the complete schedule on our site. Furthermore, you can check NEET 2024 dates for application, admit card, exam, answer key, result, counselling, etc along with other relevant information.
See More
View All Dates
NEET Information

NEET Information

Application Form
Eligibility Criteria
Reservation Policy
Admit Card
NTA has announced the NEET 2024 application form release date on the official website The NEET 2024 Application Form is available on the official website for online registration from 9 February 2024 to 9 March 2024. Besides the NEET 2024 application form release date, learn about the application process, steps to fill out the form, how to submit it, the exam date sheet, etc online. Check our website for more details.
NEET 2024 applicants should be aware of the eligibility criteria before applying for the exam. NTA has released all the relevant information on the official website, i.e. NEET 2024 aspirants should have passed Class 12th or any other equivalent qualifying examination in 2023, or 2022, or students appearing in the Class 12th final exam in 2024 can also apply. For further details, visit our website.
As per the union government’s norms, NTA has released the NEET 2024 reservation criteria for different candidates’ categories (SC/ST/OBC/PwD), All India Quota, State Government Quota, Deemed Universities, and more. You can check more details on the Vedantu website.
NEET 2024 Admit Card will be released by the NTA in the 4th week of April 2024. Candidates can download the NEET admit card and hall ticket from the NEET official website i.e. For more details on the NEET admit card 2024, candidates can check Vedantu's official website.
NEET 2024 Study Material

NEET 2024 Study Material

View NEET Syllabus in Detail
Download full syllabus
Download full syllabus
View NEET Syllabus in Detail
NEET 2024 Study Material

NEET 2024 Study Material

View all study material for NEET
See All
NEET Question Papers

NEET Question Papers

NEET 2024 Book Solutions and PDF Download

NEET 2024 Book Solutions and PDF Download

View all NEET Important Books
NCERT Book for Class 12 Biology
NCERT Book for Class 12 Physics
NCERT Book for Class 12 Chemistry
H. C. Verma Solutions
See All
NEET 2024 Mock Tests

NEET 2024 Mock Tests

View all mock tests
NEET 2024 free online mock test series for exam preparation are available on the Vedantu website for free download. Practising these mock test papers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology prepared by expert teachers at Vedantu will help you to boost your confidence to face the NEET 2024 examination without any worries. The NEET test series for Physics, Chemistry and Biology that is based on the latest syllabus of NEET and also the Previous Year Question Papers.
See More
NEET 2024 Cut Off

NEET 2024 Cut Off

NEET Cut Off
NTA is responsible for the release of the NEET 2024 cut off score. The qualifying percentile score might remain the same for different categories. According to the latest trends, the expected cut-off mark for NEET 2024 is 50% for general category candidates, 45% for physically challenged candidates, and 40% for candidates from reserved categories. For the general category, NEET qualifying marks for 2024 ranged from 715-117 general category, while for OBC/SC/ST categories, they ranged from 116-93 for OBC, 116-93 for SC and 116-93 for ST category.
See More
NEET 2024 Results

NEET 2024 Results

The NEET 2024 result will be published by NTA on in the form of a scorecard on 14 June 2024. The scorecard will include the roll number, application number, candidate's personal details, and the percentile, marks, and rank of the candidate. Only those candidates who achieve the NEET cut-off will be considered qualified for the exam.
See More
Rank List
Marks and Rank
NEET 2024 state rank lists will be released by the Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) for admissions to the 85% state quota and to all seats in private medical and dental colleges. NEET 2024 state rank lists are based on the marks obtained in medical entrance exams. Candidates can check the NEET 2024 state rank list on the official website or our site.
The Medical Counselling Committee (MCC) will conduct NEET 2024 counselling at There will be two rounds of counselling for admission under 15% All India Quota (AIQ), deemed and central universities, AIIMS, JIPMER, ESIC, and AFMC. A mop-up round of NEET counselling will be conducted excluding 15% AIQ seats, while the dates of NEET counselling for 85% state quota seats will be announced by the respective state authorities.
As per the union government’s norms, NTA has released the NEET 2024 reservation criteria for different candidates’ categories (SC/ST/OBC/PwD), All India Quota, State Government Quota, Deemed Universities, and more. Previously, the Indian Government has provided NEET reservations to OBC (27%) and EWS (10%) candidates under All India Quota (AIQ). You can check more details on the Vedantu website.
NEET 2024 Top Colleges

NEET 2024 Top Colleges

View all NEET 2024 Top Colleges
Want to know which Engineering colleges in India accept the NEET 2024 scores for admission to Engineering? Find the list of Engineering colleges accepting NEET scores in India, compiled by Vedantu. 1990 Colleges are accepting NEET Score. It includes 706 Medical, 323 Dental, 914 AYUSH, and 47 BVSc & AH colleges. Also find more details on Fees, Ranking, Admission, and Placement.
See More

FAQs on NEET Chapter Page - Differentiations & Conversions - Organic Chemistry


1. In organic chemistry, what are the four types of reactions?

Additions, eliminations, replacements, and rearrangements are the four main reaction classes. The number of -bonds in the substrate molecule rise in an additional reaction, usually at the price of one or more -bonds.

2. What is the difference between a reagent and a substrate?

A molecule that serves as a reactant in a process is referred to as a substrate. The enzyme operates on a molecule called a substrate. The substrate is transformed into a product by the action of enzymes. A reagent is a chemical molecule that can be a single substance or a combination of substances.

3. In organic chemistry, what is conversion?

An organic conversion is a process of converting one organic chemical to another organic compound utilising one or more other organic compounds or reagents in a single or several processes. Questions about organic conversions play an essential part in organic chemistry. Class 12 organic chemistry conversions are difficult questions to solve in exams. Organic conversions are simple if you understand organic compounds and reactions. To perform an organic conversion, we must first determine which molecules are necessary for each step.

4. What is the procedure for converting propanol to propene?

In the presence of peroxide, combine propene with hydrogen bromide. Propan-1-ol is obtained by adding an aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide to the resulting and heating it. Propene–2–ol is formed when propene is treated with water in the presence of an acid as a catalyst.