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Difference Between Hormone and Enzyme

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Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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Control of Metabolism and Characteristics of Hormone and Enzyme

In order to understand the difference between Hormone and Enzyme, one must be aware of the metabolic reactions happening in living cells. Then one can explain hormone and enzyme. 


Meaning of Metabolism

The term "metabolism" refers to the collection of biological reactions that keep an organism's cells alive. All living creatures require energy for a number of essential processes, including the synthesis of new organic molecules.


Function of Metabolism

The metabolic processes support both growth and reproduction as well as the preservation of the structural integrity of living beings. The metabolic processes allow organisms to react to their surroundings. Energy is required for all chemical processes carried out by living things, including digestion and the movement of materials from one cell to another.

What is Hormone and Enzyme?

Hormone: A hormone is a byproduct of living cells that circulates in bodily fluids like blood or sap and has an influence on the activity of cells far from its source that is particular and often stimulatory. Hormonal responses are also possible with synthetic drugs. Hormones are chemical messengers, helping one portion of the body connect with another by delivering messages. In animals, endocrine glands immediately release them into the circulation, where they circulate until they reach the desired tissue or organ.


Functions of Hormones

When a hormone first comes into contact with a particular cell or tissue, important processes can begin, including cell or tissue growth and development, the initiation and maintenance of sexual development and reproduction, aiding in the metabolism of food, managing body temperature, regulating mood and cognitive function. 


Enzyme: A protein molecule known as an enzyme functions as a biological catalyst by controlling the pace of a biochemical reaction. It is reusable since the action doesn't change the structure of the object. Enzymes catalyse every part of the metabolism in cells.


Functions of Enzymes

Large nutrition molecules like proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are broken down into smaller molecules by the action of enzymes, converting chemical energy into other cellular activities including the synthesis of macromolecules from their precursor components. All enzymes are proteins, with the exception of ribozymes.


Hormone and Enzyme Difference 

S.No

Category

Hormone

Enzyme

1

Definition

Messenger molecules that trigger physiological functions.

A catalyst that speeds up the pace of a reaction.

2

Usage

After usage, the chemical makeup changes, therefore it might or might not be reused.

Reusable because it retains its chemical makeup after usage.

3

Production

Hormones are produced by endocrine glands, including the pituitary and thyroid.

Gastric and salivary glands are examples of exocrine glands that generate enzymes.

4

Composition

Proteins, amino acids, steroids, etc.

Mostly made up of proteins.

5

Environment

Unlike enzymes, hormones are less severely impacted by environmental influences.

The control of enzymes is severely impacted by external influences, including temperature, pH levels, and others.

6

Activity

The point of synthesis and activity is different. 

At the point of synthesis, enzymes form and function.

7

Examples

The hormone melatonin controls your circadian rhythm (sleep cycle).

Examples include the crucial digestive enzymes protease, amylase, and lipase.


Summary

Hormones are tiny molecules that function in a different place from where they were created. The body's chemical signals are circulated via them. Numerous tissues and organs so interact with one another through hormones. Enzymes, which are proteins with specific functions, help the body's biological processes. They develop in the location of the activity. Enzymes frequently alter their structure in unfavorable conditions of temperature and pH. Hormones and enzymes behave within the body in very different ways. In this way, the article aims to explain hormone and enzyme.

FAQs on Difference Between Hormone and Enzyme

1. What are the types of Hormones?

The body secretes a variety of hormones that have various biological purposes. Polypeptides, amines, terpenoids, steroids, and phenolic substances can all be hormones. A small number of hormones may have a significant impact on the body since they are such strong molecules. After their effect, hormones are destroyed. Protein-based hormones are usually extracellular in activity because they cannot cross the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane whereas steroid-based hormones are intracellular because they cross the lipid bilayer.

2. What are the types of Enzymes?

There are tens of thousands of distinct enzymes in the body. Each kind of enzyme serves only one purpose. Sucrose, for example, is broken down by the enzyme sucrase. Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down lactose, a kind of sugar found in milk products. Carbohydrase, an enzyme, turns carbohydrates into sugars. By converting fats into fatty acids, lipase. The enzyme amylase, which is produced in the mouth, helps break down large molecules of starch. Pepsin, a digestive enzyme, promotes the breakdown of proteins. The pancreas produces trypsin, which assists in the disintegration of proteins.

3. What is Hormone and Enzyme?

The primary distinction between a hormone and an enzyme is that a hormone sends signals throughout the body, causing target tissues and organs to undergo a particular cellular reaction. An enzyme, on the other hand, functions as a biological catalyst, speeding up a particular biochemical reaction without changing the reaction itself. Their chemical structure is the primary distinction between hormones and enzymes. An enzyme is often a protein. However, proteins, amino acids, or even steroids may be used to create hormones.