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What is called hole?

Last updated date: 23rd Jun 2024
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Hint: Use the concept of the movement of the electron from the valence band to the conduction band and use the property of physical particles to define the nature of the hole. Use the direct nature of hole and electron.

Complete step by step solution:
When electrons moves from the valence band (the shell outside the closed shells that is partially or completely filled with electrons) to the conduction band (the outer shell from which electrons most easily escape from, or are accepted by, the atom), a vacancy is created in the valence band. This vacancy is called a hole. It is a positive charge carrier.
Hole is opposite in polarity of the electron but the magnitude of both hole and electron is equal.
In other words, a hole is an absence of an electron in a particular place in an atom. Hole is not a physical particle in the same sense as an electron, but a hole can be passed from atom to atom in a semiconductor material.
The two types of charge carriers are holes and electrons that are responsible for current in semiconductor materials.
The direction of flow of holes is from positive to negative which is opposite to that of electrons charge carriers.
The majority charge carriers are electrons in N-type semiconductors whereas, in P-type semiconductors, holes are the majority charge carriers.

Note: Make sure about the direction of charge carriers and the movement of electrons. Avoid confusion between the N-type and P-type material and their properties and use it carefully.