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Read the following reaction:
(i) ${ CH }_{ 3 }COONa+NaOH \overset{CaO}\longrightarrow { CH }_{ 4 }+{ Na }_{ 2 }{ CO }_{ 3 }$
(ii) ${ CH }_{ 3 }COONa+{ C }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }OH \overset{CaO}\longrightarrow { CH }_{ 3 }{ COOC }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }+{ H }_{ 2 }O$
(iii) ${ CH }_{ 3 }COO{ C }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }+NaOH\longrightarrow { CH }_{ 3 }{ COONa }+{ C }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }OH$
(iv) ${ 2CH }_{ 3 }COOH+2Na\longrightarrow 2{ CH }_{ 3 }{ COONa }+{ H }_{ 2 }$
Which of the above represents(s) esterification reaction?
(A) Only (i)
(B) Only (ii)
(C) (i) and (ii)
(D) (ii) and (iv)

Last updated date: 17th Apr 2024
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Hint: To solve this question you need to recall the formation of esters. The basic chemical reaction that takes place during the formation of ester is called esterification reaction. Now from the given options see where ester is formed!

Complete step by step answer:
The main purpose for the reaction between alcohols and carboxylic acids is to make esters. Esters are derived from the carboxylic acid which contains the COOH- group, and here the hydrogen in this group Is replaced by a hydrocarbon group.
> Esterification is the process of combining an organic acid (RCOOH) with an alcohol (ROH) to form ester (RCOOR) and water molecules. In simple words ester is obtained by the reaction of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid.
So, let us see what actually happens in the esterification reaction!
>Basically, when a primary alcohol is treated with a carboxylic acid in the presence of a strong acid, in this case sulphuric acid is used. A compound is formed which has a sweet smell. This compound is called ester. So, on the whole the chemical reaction occurring in the formation of the ester is known as an esterification reaction.
Let us see the chemical reaction.
 ${ CH }_{ 3 }COONa+{ C }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }OH \overset{CaO}\longrightarrow { CH }_{ 3 }{ COOC }_{ 2 }{ H }_{ 5 }+{ H }_{ 2 }O$
Hence, Option B is the required answer.

Note: As we have seen esters have a sweet smell, so they are in perfumes, food flavorings and cosmetics etc. It is also used in the manufacturing of surfactants like detergents and soaps.