Thin-film interference is a common occurrence that happens in our everyday lives. For instance, you must have noticed some rainbow-colored reflection in a pool of water on the side of the road or in a bubble. This observable effect is known as thin-film interference.
However, this is a simple explanation. We shall study more in-depth about this concept below.
What is Thin Film Interference?
Thin-film interference is the phenomenon that is a result of lightwave being reflected off two surfaces that are at a distance comparable to its wavelength. When light waves that reflect off the top and bottom surfaces interfere with one another we see different colored patterns. During this, the light reaches the boundary between two media, and part of it gets reflected and some part gets transmitted.
When the second medium is a thin film, there are two reflections occurring close together at the top and bottom boundary surfaces of the thin film. Thus, there are two waves emerging from a thin film – one wave reflected off the top surface of the film and the other reflected off the bottom surface.
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Meanwhile, the type of interference that can take place is dependent upon these factors.
Wavelength and angle of the incident light.
The thickness of the film.
Index of the film medium.
Conditions for Interference
An important consideration in determining thin-film interference is also by knowing the source of the light. A source could be a monochromatic or broadband source. Monochromatic source results in interference patterns that appear as light or dark bands. We will look at the major conditions for interference and get a better idea of the concept.
The form of reflection undergo by the light waves at each boundary depends on the refraction indexes of the two mediums.
Soft Reflection: Reflects off a medium with a lower refraction index, as a result, no phase shift is observed.
Hard Reflection: Reflects off a medium with a higher refraction index, as a result, a phase shift is observed of λ/2.
Reflection of Light
In this case, there is no phase change due to reflection at B and C because in both cases light is traveling from denser to rarer medium. Thus, the effective path difference between transmitted rays is also 2µt cos r.
Transmission of Light
In this case, the phase difference between the waves is 180 degrees. Therefore,
For constructive interference,
nλ = 2μt Cos r
For destructive interference,
(2n + 1) λ / 2 = 2μt Cos r
where n = 0,1,2,3.
m is a whole number ≥0
t is the thickness of the thin film
λn is the wavelength in the medium.
Phase Difference and Path Difference
The phase difference is the difference in phase angle between two waves. Path difference is defined as the difference in actual distance traveled by the two waves.
The phase angle is the part of one complete wave cycle measured as a fraction of 2π (360 degrees) i.e the phase difference from one wave peak to the next is 2π (360 degrees).
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Relation Between Path Difference and Phase Difference
The phase difference ø is 2π by wavelength (lambda) times the path difference (x)
ø = 2π / λ x
The interference can be constructive or destructive depending on the phase difference between the two reflected light waves, resulting in the increase or decrease in the brightness of the reflected light.
During constructive interference, the light of a particular wavelength increases in intensity whereas in destructive interference it decreases in intensity.
When light is traveling from denser medium to rarer medium, the phase shift is zero. When light is traveling from rarer medium to denser medium, the phase shift is 180 degrees.
Derivation of Path Difference
Consider light reflecting off the top and bottom interfaces of a thin film
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From the geometry of the triangles AEB, AFB, ABC, and ACF,
AE=EF, BC=BF &AB=BF
µ = Sin i / Sin r (Snell’s law)
In triangle ACD, Sin i = AD / AC –––––– (i)
In triangle AGC, Sin r = GC / AC –––––– (ii)
Equation (i) ÷ (ii)
Sin i / Sin r = AD / AC
µ = AD /GC
AD = µGC
µ (FC – GC) = µ (FG
Now in triangle AFG,
cos r = FG / AF
FG = AF cos r
FG = 2t cos r [because AF = AE +EF = t + t]
where t is the thickness of the thin film
Path difference = 2μt Cos r
Thin-Film Interference Soap Bubble
When we take a soap bubble, light waves travel through the air and hits the soap film. If we look at the refractive index of air it is 1(nair = 1) whereas the film will have an index larger than 1 (nfilm > 1).
On the other hand, a 180° phase shift will be introduced in the reflected wave. It takes place at the upper boundary of the film. The shift occurs mainly because of the lower refractive index of the air than that of the film.
Further, light from the upper air-film interface will keep moving to the lower film-air interface where it is reflected. Here, the phase of the reflected wave is not changed.