## What are Resistance and Impedance: Introduction

To explain Resistance and Impedance: In the world of electrical engineering and circuit analysis, two terms that often come up in discussions are "resistance" and "impedance." While they may seem similar at first glance, they actually have distinct meanings and play different roles in the behavior of electronic systems. Understanding the difference between resistance and impedance is crucial for comprehending the complexity of circuits and designing efficient electrical systems. Resistance refers to the opposition that a material or component offers to the flow of electrical current. On the other hand, impedance indicates the overall opposition that a circuit presents to the flow of alternating current (AC). In this article, we will know about resistance and impedance differences. To do that first, lets learn what is resistance and impedance. Then, we will learn about the characteristics of resistance and impedance.

## Defining Resistance

Resistance is a fundamental concept in electrical engineering that refers to the opposition encountered by a material or component to the flow of electrical current. It is a property exhibited by conductors, and its magnitude determines how easily or difficulty current can pass through a circuit.

## Characteristics of Resistance

Definition from Ohm’s Law: Resistance is defined as the ratio of the voltage across a component to the current flowing through it, according to Ohm's Law. Mathematically, resistance (R) is equal to the voltage (V) divided by the current (I): R = V/I.

Ohmic and Non-Ohmic Materials: Materials that exhibit a linear relationship between voltage and current, following Ohm's law, are called "ohmic" materials. Examples include most metals. Non-ohmic materials, on the other hand, do not obey Ohm's law and may have a resistance that varies with voltage or current, such as diodes or thermistors.

Unit of Measurement: Resistance is measured in ohms (Ω). One volt per ampere is equivalent to one ohm.

Causes of Resistance: The resistance of a conductor depends on factors such as its length, cross-sectional area, and the material it is made of. Longer conductors and those with smaller cross-sectional areas generally exhibit higher resistance.

Material Dependence: Different materials exhibit varying levels of resistance. For instance, materials like copper and aluminum are known for their low resistance, making them excellent conductors, while insulators like rubber and plastic offer high resistance.

Temperature Dependence: The resistance of certain materials, such as metals, increases with temperature. This is due to the increased collision of electrons with atoms as the temperature rises, impeding their flow.

Power Dissipation: When current flows through a component with resistance, electrical energy is converted into heat energy due to the resistance encountered. This phenomenon is known as power dissipation and is an important consideration in circuit design to ensure components do not exceed their power-handling capabilities.

Series and Parallel Resistance: In circuits with multiple resistors, their resistances can be combined in series or parallel configurations. In series, the total resistance is equal to the sum of individual resistances, while in parallel, the reciprocal of the total resistance is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of individual resistances.

Impact on Circuits: Resistance affects the behavior of circuits in various ways. It influences the voltage drop across components, the division of current in parallel branches, and the overall power consumption.

## Defining Impedance

Impedance is the combined measure of resistance and reactance in a circuit. Impedance is a complex quantity because it consists of both a real part (resistance) and an imaginary part (reactance). It is denoted by the symbol Z and is measured in ohms (Ω).

## Characteristics of Impedance

Resistance Component: The resistance component of impedance represents the opposition encountered by the AC current due to the resistive properties of the circuit. It is denoted as R, which represents the real part of the complex impedance. It behaves in the same way as resistance in a DC circuit and dissipates electrical energy as heat.

Reactance Component: The reactance component of impedance arises due to the presence of capacitance or inductance in a circuit. It is denoted as X, which represents the imaginary part of the complex impedance. Capacitive reactance (Xc) occurs when AC current encounters a capacitor, while inductive reactance (Xl) occurs when AC current encounters an inductor. Reactance is measured in ohms and can be positive (indicating capacitance) or negative (indicating inductance).

Phasor Representation: Impedance is often represented using phasors, which are complex numbers that incorporate both magnitude and phase angle. Phasors allow for the analysis of AC circuits using the principles of vector addition and subtraction.

Frequency Dependency: Unlike resistance, impedance is frequency-dependent. The magnitude of impedance varies with the frequency of the AC signal applied to the circuit. Higher frequencies can result in higher reactance values, impacting the behavior of the circuit.

Impedance in Series and Parallel Circuits: In series circuits, impedances add up algebraically, considering both magnitude and phase. In parallel circuits, the reciprocals of impedances add up, and the resulting impedance is the reciprocal of the sum of reciprocals.

Complex Power and Power Factor: Complex power is the vector sum of real power (associated with resistance) and reactive power (associated with reactance). It is denoted by S. The magnitude of complex power is known as the apparent power. It is denoted by |S|. The ratio of real power to apparent power is known as the power factor. It is a measure of how effectively a circuit utilizes the power delivered to it.

## The Difference Between Resistance and Impedance

## Summary

From this article, it can be concluded that resistance specifically represents the opposition to current flow, while impedance encompasses both resistance and reactance. Resistance is frequency-independent and scalar, while impedance is frequency-dependent and represents a complex quantity. Understanding the difference between resistance and impedance is vital for designing and analyzing electrical circuits, particularly in AC applications.

## FAQs on Difference Between Resistance and Impedance

1. What are the two components of impedance?

Impedance includes both resistance (R) and reactance (X) components. Reactance accounts for the opposition caused by the capacitance (capacitive reactance, Xc) or inductance (inductive reactance, Xl).

2. How is impedance dependent on the frequency of the AC circuit?

The impedance magnitude varies with the AC signal's frequency applied to the circuit. Higher frequencies can result in higher reactance values, impacting the behaviour of the circuit.

3. How is resistance dependent on temperature?

The resistance of certain materials, such as metals, increases with temperature. This is due to the increased collision of electrons with atoms as the temperature rises, impeding their flow.

4. What is an ohmic material?

Materials that exhibit a linear relationship between voltage and current, following Ohm's law, are called "ohmic" materials. Examples include most metals.

5. What is the power factor?

The power factor is defined as the ratio of real power to apparent power. It is a measure of how effectively a circuit utilizes the power delivered to it.