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**Hint**: Resistance is measured in Ohm$\left( \Omega \right)$. It is named after the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. Mathematically, it is the ratio of the potential difference (V) applied across the resistor to the current (I) flowing through it. Thus,

$R=\dfrac{V}{I}$

Complete step by step answer:

The resistance of a resistor is the measure of the opposition offered by the resistor to the flow of current through it. Mathematically, it is the ratio of the potential difference (V) applied across the resistor to the current (I) flowing through it. Thus,

$R=\dfrac{V}{I}$

The resistance of a resistor is measured in Ohm$\left( \Omega \right)$, which is the SI unit.

It has been named after the German physicist, Georg Simon Ohm.

Therefore, the correct option is A) Resistance.

Additional Information:

The SI unit of Capacitance is Farad (F), named after the English physicist, Michael Faraday.

The SI unit of voltage or potential difference is Volt (V) named after the Italian physicist, Alessandro Volta.

The SI unit of current is Ampere (A), named after the French mathematician and physicist, Andre-Marie Ampere.

The electrical resistance of an object is due to the arrangement of atoms in the crystal structure. As the atoms vibrate, they collide and pose a hindrance to the free flow of electrons. This is also the reason why resistance increases with temperature in metals. With rise in temperature, the atoms gain more thermal energy and vibrate even more vigorously, thus causing more of a hindrance to the free flow of electrons and hence electric current.

**Note**: The SI system of units is the most universally accepted system of units of measurement. They are used internationally and are deemed to be the official metric of units for all scientific purposes.

Thus, a student must be thorough with all the SI units of the physical quantities. They should also be thorough with the dimensions of the physical quantities.

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