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In the reaction, \[{{P}_{4}}+NaOH\to P{{H}_{3}}+Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\] mole ratio of \[Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\] and \[P{{H}_{3}}\] is:

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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MVSAT 2024
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Hint: Start this question by writing the complete equation and balance it. Also, keep in mind the oxidation states and atomic numbers while solving it.

Complete step by step answer:
The reaction given above is an example of disproportionation reaction. It is because \[{{P}_{4}}\]acts both as an oxidant and reductant.
White phosphorus reacts with a cold and concentrated solution of sodium hydroxide and water to produce phosphine and sodium hypophosphite. This reaction takes place slowly.
We can balance the given equation as –
\[{{P}_{4}}+3NaOH+3{{H}_{2}}O\to P{{H}_{3}}+3Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\]
From the reaction we can see that there are 3 moles of \[Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\] (sodium hypophosphite) and 1 mole of \[P{{H}_{3}}\].
Therefore, the answer is – the mole ratio of \[Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\] and \[P{{H}_{3}}\]in the given reaction is 3.

Additional information:
Reactants –
White phosphorus - \[{{P}_{4}}\]
White phosphorus or simply tetraphosphorus (\[{{P}_{4}}\]) exists as molecules which is made up of four atoms in a tetrahedral structure. The tetrahedral arrangement results in ring strain and instability.
Sodium hydroxide - \[NaOH\]
Water - \[{{H}_{2}}O\]

Products –
Phosphine - \[P{{H}_{3}}\]
It is a colorless, flammable, toxic gas and is classified as a pnictogen hydride. Phosphine burns and produces a dense white cloud of phosphoric acid.
Sodium hypophosphite - \[Na{{H}_{2}}P{{O}_{2}}\]
Sodium hypophosphite is also known as sodium phosphinate. It is the sodium salt of hypophosphorous acid. It is a solid at room temperature and appears as odorless white crystals.

Note: The given reaction is a disproportionation reaction. It is also known as redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states, and hence oxidation and reduction takes place simultaneously.