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Convert chloro benzene to phenol.

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Last updated date: 29th May 2024
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Answer
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Hint: We know that Dow's process is one of the ways of conversion of chlorobenzene to phenol. To obtain phenol from chlorobenzene, first we have to react with chlorobenzene with sodium hydroxide, then phenoxide ion forms. The acidification of phenoxide ions results in phenol.

Complete answer:
In Dow's process, hydrolysis of chlorobenzene results in phenol. First step is treating chlorobenzene with aqueous sodium hydroxide at a temperature of 623 K and pressure of 300 bar to convert it into sodium phenoxide.
Now, we write the reaction of formation of sodium phenoxide ion by reaction of chlorobenzene with sodium hydroxide.


The next step is the acidification of phenoxide ions. This can be done by reacting phenoxide ion with hydrochloric acid. The result of this reaction is the production of phenol.

Now, we write the reaction of production of phenol by acidification of phenoxide ions.


Hence, by Dow’s process, we are able to convert chloro benzene to phenol by Dow’s process.

Additional information:
When one hydrogen atom of the benzene ring is replaced by a hydroxide ion, then the compound is known as phenol. Phenols are commonly used as intermediates in industrial synthesis and in household products. For example, phenol is used as a disinfectant (in low concentrations) in household and mouthwash cleaners. Phenol was probably the first antiseptic surgery. Phenol is also known as carbonic acid, hydroxybenzene and phenolic acid.

Note:
Another way to convert chlorobenzene to phenol is by reacting phenol with steam at 698 K in presence of calcium phosphate. The reaction gives phenol and hydrochloric acid.