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Chemical Bonding

Last updated date: 14th Apr 2024
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What is a Chemical Bond?

The term ‘Chemical Bonding’ indicates the development of a chemical bond between two or multiple atoms, ions, or molecules to develop a chemical compound. 

These types of chemical bonds have a certain amount of strength which retains the atoms together in the subsequent compound. The reason is, it can be assumed that the chemical compounds are dependent on the strong point of the chemical bonds between its components. If the bonding is stronger between the constituents, there would be more stability in the resulting compound.

On the other hand, it is also accurate that if there is weak chemical bonding between the components, the resultant compound would possess no steadiness. It would effortlessly experience another reaction to produce more stable chemical compounds that contain stronger bonds. The atoms will attempt to drop their energy for finding stability.

Classification of Chemical Bonds 

During the formation of chemical bonding, the materials participate in producing compounds. The firmness of the subsequent compound can be evaluated by the type of chemical bonds it comprises.

The different types of chemical bonds formed vary in strength and properties. 

There are 4 main classifications of chemical bonds that are shaped by atoms or molecules to yield compounds. 

  • Ionic Bonds

  • Covalent Bonds

  • Hydrogen Bonds

  • Polar Bonds

  1. Ionic Bonding

This type of chemical bonding contains a relocation of electrons from one atom or molecule to the alternative atom. At this time, an atom misses an electron, which is in sequence added by neighbouring atom. 

As soon as such electron transfer happens, one of the atoms creates a negative charge and is named the anion. The additional atom cultivates a positive charge and is named as the cation. 

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  1. Covalent Bonding

The covalent bond specifies the distribution of electrons between atoms. The compounds that consist of carbon (also known as organic compounds) usually display this sort of chemical bonding. The duo electrons, which are united by the two atoms, now spread around the nuclei of atoms, prominent to the formation of a molecule.

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  1. Polar Covalent Bonding

The nature of the covalent bonds is that they can either be Polar or Nonpolar. The electrons are united unevenly in polar covalent chemical bonding as the additional electronegative atom attracts the electron nearer to itself and away from the fewer electronegative atoms. 

  1. Hydrogen Bonding

If you make some comparison between ionic and covalent bonding, hydrogen bonding turns out to be a fragile procedure of chemical bonding. This kind of polar covalent bonding between oxygen and hydrogen is that the hydrogen develops a partial positive charge in the formation of the water. 

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Chemical Bonding Structure

The intramolecular forces among the particles to create strong chemical bonds are possible if they hold themselves together in molecules.

For the formation of the strong chemical bond, the mutual contribution of electrons requires between the atomic centres. It relies on the electrostatic attraction between the protons in nuclei and the electrons in the orbitals.

Formation of Chemical Bond

A chemical bond can be defined as it is the permanent attraction of forces among the atoms, ions or molecules that enable the formation of chemical compounds. 

The result of the bonding may come after the force of attraction between differently charged ions as in ionic bonds or through the sharing of electrons as in covalent bonds.

The strong point of the chemical bonds differs significantly. 

The "strong bonds" or "primary bonds" can be distinguished as the covalent bonds, the ionic bonds and the metallic bonds, whereas the "weak bonds" or "secondary bonds" are known for the London dispersion force, the dipole-dipole interactions and hydrogen bonding.

Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

The capability of an atom, an ion, or a molecule to draw a pair of electrons in a chemical bond is called its electronegativity. This is the chemical bonding structure of an atom, an ion or a molecule where their molecular structure, which denotes only the location of atoms in a molecule but not the electrons, is correspondent to electron-pair geometry. This happens when there are no unique electron pairs nearby the central atom.

Chemical Bond Examples

  1. There are solitary covalent bonds where the only a couple of electrons are united between atoms. The procedure is significant with the elements that are non-metallic in nature. For example, let’s take water (H2O), It signifies that it has one oxygen atom combined with two hydrogen atoms and every bond is a single covalent bond.

  2. When there is a chance of double covalent bonds formation, the two pairs of electrons are mutated between the atoms involved. For example, the oxygen gas that we respire i.e. O2 has two atoms of oxygen combined but a couple of electrons are united between the oxygen atoms.

  1. When the triple covalent bonds formed at the time of the sharing of three pairs of electrons to give rise to a triple bond. For example, the nitrogen gas that formulates the majority of our atmosphere combines this way. It stays as N2 or two nitrogen atoms combined by contributing three pairs of electrons.

FAQs on Chemical Bonding

Q1. Can You Justify that an Ionic Bond is Tougher than a Covalent Bond?

Ans: An Ionic bond is created from the mutual attraction between differently charged ions but a Covalent Bond is the kind of bond that is created from the distribution of electrons between nuclei. 

They tend to be tougher than the covalent bonds as a result of the coulombic attraction between ions of reverse charges.

Q2. Explain the Working of the Chemical Bonds.

Ans: The chemical bonds are the long-term pulling force between atoms, molecules or ions that helps in the formation of chemical compounds. This kind of bond may develop from the electrostatic force of attraction between two differently charged ions, just like in the ionic bonds or via electrons’ sharing, just like in covalent bonds.

Q3. Describe the Electrovalent Bond.

Ans: The electrovalent bond is also known as the Ionic bond. This kind of connection (bonding) is created from the electrostatic attraction between two differently charged ions in a chemical complex. This type of bond develops as soon as the valence or outermost electrons of one atom are propagated to another atom forever.

Q4. Is there Any Possibility that All Chemical Reactions have the Same Reaction Rate?

Ans: No, the Reaction Rate all chemical reactions do not take place at the same rate. A few of them take place very rapidly, such as detonations; on the other hand, a few of them consume a long time, such as metal rusting. 

The swiftness that the reactants convert to products is known as the reaction rate.