Types of Salts with Examples for JEE

VSAT 2022

What is Salt?

When an acid combines with a base, it produces salt. The cation of a base and the anion of an acid make up salt. This reaction is called a neutralisation reaction and occurs when an acid reacts with a base. For example, common table salt (sodium chloride) is also referred to as salt. Most of the salts are entirely dissociated into negatively and positively charged ions, making them conductors of electricity. Salts are distinguishable because they usually contain positive ions from metals and negative ions from non-metals.


Properties of Salt

Salts frequently create a crystal structure, also known as a crystal lattice, which is a highly organised arrangement of molecules. Due to strong ionic bonding throughout the crystal, the solids are also hard and brittle. Salts also have high boiling and melting temperatures because breaking those bonds and changing the salt's matter state requires a lot of energy.


Finally, salts are electrolytes, which means that when they dissolve in water, they produce free-moving ions that can conduct electricity. Solid salts do not conduct electricity. However, molten salts do. Salt hydrolysis is the process when one of the ions in a salt (cation or anion) interacts with water to produce an acidic or basic solution. It is described as the reaction of a salt with water to release the acid and base.

Types of Salt

Based on the nature of salts, they have been classified into different types. They are:


Simple salts

A simple combination of an acid and a base produces simple salts. NaCl, which is made up of HCl(acid) and NaOH, is the most typical example of a simple salt. Simple salts are grouped into three types based on the substrate for the salts: acidic salts, basic salts, and normal salts.


Acidic salts

Acidic salts are salts that dissolve in water and produce an acidic solution. Alternatively, we may say that an acidic salt is a salt generated by partial neutralisation of a diprotic or polyprotic acid. In baking, certain acid salts are employed. For example, Sodium carbonate (NaHCO3) and Sodium bisulfate (NaSO4).


Basic salts

Salts that dissolve in water and form a basic solution are known as basic salts. A basic salt is generated when a strong base is partially neutralized by a weak acid. These salts react to form a basic solution when they are hydrolyzed. This occurs because the conjugate base of the weak acid is generated in the solution when a basic salt is hydrolyzed. For example, potassium cyanide (KCN) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH).


Neutral salts

They are called neutral salts because their aqueous solutions are neutral. They are created by neutralising strong acids and strong bases. A neutral salt has no acidic or alkaline properties. Examples of neutral salts are Sodium chloride (NaCl), Sodium nitrate (NaNO3), Potassium sulphate (K2SO4), and Potassium chloride (KCl).


Double salts

Double salts are created when two or more stable compounds are combined in a defined ratio. They usually have an equimolar percentage of two simple salts. In an aqueous solution, they only escape in the solid state. They dissociate fully into ions. Double salt has the same properties as its parts because it is an ionic compound. Examples of double salts are Mohr’s salt 2Fe(NH4)(SO4)2.6H2O.


Complex salts

Complex salts are made up of two or more simple salts that may or may not be in equimolar proportions. They exist in the solid-state as well as in aqueous solutions because complex ions do not break down into ions in the solution. After all, they have a coordination bond. Coordination compounds have different properties than their ingredients. The metal ion in complex salt fulfils its two forms of valency, primary and secondary valencies. Examples of complex salts are Hexamine chromium(III) chloride $\left[\mathrm{Cr}\left(\mathrm{NH}_{3}\right){6}\right] \mathrm{Cl}_{3}$

Nickel carbonyl $\left[\mathrm{Ni}(\mathrm{CO})_{4}\right]$.


Mixed salts

One of the salts that contain two salts in a predetermined proportion is mixed salt. This mixed salt shares a common cation or anion. A double salt is a salt that contains more than one cation or anion, while a mixed salt is a salt that comprises two salts in a constant composition. It is important to distinguish between double salt and mixed salt. Double salt is exemplified by Rochelle salt. For example, bleaching powder. The salt formula is (Ca(ClO)2), Calcium disodium EDTA, and Sodium potassium sulfate (NaKSO4).


Importance of salts

Many salts find application in our daily life. Some salts examples are NaCl, which is also commonly known as table salt, and is used every day in every household. Let us recall all these important salts.


Bleaching powder: the salt molecular formula is Ca(CIO)2 it is also called white powder and is used to remove the color of fabric, fibre, etc. It is also used as a disinfectant for drinking water, and bleaching laundry clothes. It is a calcium salt having a disinfecting property because of its chlorine-free radical. Washing soda: the salt molecular formula is Na2CO3. The ashes of plants growing in sodium-rich soils were used in making washing soda. White crystals of rock salt can be seen in nature. We get it by evaporating seawater or extracting it in its mineral form, halite.


Plaster of Paris: the salt molecular formula is $\mathrm{CaSO}_{4} \cdot \dfrac{1}{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$: POP is a white powder that is used to make plaster of Paris. The name comes from the fact that it was extensively mined in the Paris suburb of Montmartre.


It is used by clinicians to stabilise shattered bones.


Conclusion

In this article, we have discussed the nature of salts, their properties, and their types. The neutralisation process between an acid and a base produces salt, an ionic molecule. The components of salt are anions and cations. Salts are categorised in several ways. Alkali salts are salts that create hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. Acid salts are salts that create acidic solutions. Salts that are neither acidic nor basic are known as neutral salts.


We come across several salts in our daily lives, which we utilize for cooking, baking, detergent manufacturing, and supporting fractured bones, among other things.

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FAQs on Types of Salts with Examples for JEE

1. What are the different methods for the preparation of salts?

The process for the formation of salt is determined by the salt's solubility in water.

  1. A soluble salt can be made by combining an acid with a metal, a base, or a carbonate.

$\begin{align}&\mathrm{Zn}+2\mathrm{HCl}=\mathrm{ZnCl}_{2}+\mathrm{H}_{2}\\&\mathrm{Mg}+\mathrm{H}_{2}\mathrm{SO}_{4}=\mathrm{MgSO}_{4}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \end{align}$

  1. As a result of an acid-base reaction, salts are produced in all acid-base reactions (neutralization reactions).

$\mathrm{NaOH}+\mathrm{HCl}=\mathrm{NaCl}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$

  1. Sodium and chlorine mix immediately to generate sodium chloride by direct union of a metal and a nonmetal.$2 \mathrm{Na}+\mathrm{Cl}_{2}=2 \mathrm{NaCl}$

  2. The combination of an acidic oxide and a basic oxide: $\mathrm{CO}_{2}+\mathrm{CaC}=\mathrm{CaCO}_{3}$

  3. When a metal reacts with a base, the following happens: With the evolution of hydrogen gas, zinc is heated with an aqueous solution of NaOH to generate sodium zincate (salt).

2. What do you understand by the term hydrolysis of salts?

Salt hydrolysis is the reaction in which salt is formed by combining a weak acid and a strong base, or a strong acid and a weak base, with water to form an acidic or alkaline solution. When weak acid and base salts, as well as weak acid-base salts with strong acids and bases, are dissolved in water, they are hydrolysed, and acid-base equilibrium is created. The relative strength of the acid and base generated determines the composition of the solution after hydrolysis.

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