Reaction of Metals With Water for JEE

VSAT 2022

What are Metals?

Metals are substances that are developed naturally inside the earth’s surface. Most metals are either shiny or glossy. Metal is utilised to construct a variety of objects since it is strong and long-lasting. These are employed in the production of vehicles, satellites, kitchenware, etc.


Metals are group of materials that exhibit strong thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as malleability, ductility, and high light reflection. Metals have an ability to lose electrons as they are electropositive in nature. Aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium are the elements that are most abundant in the crust of the Earth. Most metals are found in ores, although some, like copper, gold, platinum, and silver, are frequently discovered in their free state because they do not react easily with other elements. 


Properties of Metals 

Physical Properties of Metals

All metals are effective heat and electrical conductors. Metals are used to make cooking utensils and irons because they are efficient heat conductors.


The capacity of a substance to be stretched into a wire is known as its ductility. Due to their endurance and ability to be formed into wires, metals with this property are used to make cable wires and for soldering. Metals are referred to as ductile because they may be pulled into wires.


A substance's malleability is defined by its capacity to be beaten into flat sheets. Since they are strong and lightweight, aluminium sheets are commonly used in the construction of aircraft. Metals are thus malleable. When struck with another hard object, metals produce a rich or ringing sound that makes them sonorous.


Although all metals appear glossy in their natural state, this can also be achieved by polishing the metals. Metals are lustrous in nature.


Chemical Properties of Metals 

Reaction with water: Not all metals react with water, only those that are highly reactive react with water. As an illustration, sodium reacts aggressively with water and oxygen, producing a lot of heat in the process. For this reason, sodium is kept in kerosene storage to keep it away from oxygen and moisture.


Reaction with acids: When metals and acids interact, hydrogen gas is created. For instance, when zinc and hydrochloric acid mix, zinc chloride and hydrogen gas are produced.

$\mathrm{Zn}+2 \mathrm{HCl} \rightarrow \mathrm{ZnCl}_{2}+\mathrm{H}_{2}(\mathrm{~g})$


Reaction with bases: Not all metals react with bases, but when they do, metal salts and hydrogen gas are the results of the reaction. Strong sodium hydroxide and zinc react to produce sodium zincate and hydrogen gas.

$\mathrm{Zn}(\mathrm{s})+2 \mathrm{NaOH}(\mathrm{aq})+2 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}(\mathrm{l}) \rightarrow \mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{Zn}(\mathrm{OH})_{4}(\mathrm{aq})+\mathrm{H}_{2}(\mathrm{~g})$


What happens when Metal Reacts with Water?

When metals react with water, they produce the corresponding metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. Water doesn't react with majority of metals. Alkali metals, however, react violently with water.

  metal + water $\rightarrow$ metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas

 A few examples of the reaction of metal with water have been included in the reactions listed below.


Reaction of Different Metals with Water

Reaction of Sodium With Water:

When sodium and water are combined, the reaction is quite strong. Hydrogen and sodium hydroxide are created when sodium combines with water. This reaction produces a lot of heat. The reaction generates so much heat that the reaction mixture burns. This reaction is mentioned in the equation below.

Since sodium is quite reactive, kerosene is used to preserve it to prevent it from reacting with any possible airborne moisture. This is done to avoid any accidental fires.

$\mathrm{Na}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \rightarrow \mathrm{NaOH}+\mathrm{H}_{2}$

 

Reaction of Potassium With Water:

 Potassium hydroxide and hydrogen gas are produced when potassium combines with water. This reaction releases a lot of heat.

$\mathrm{K}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \rightarrow \mathrm{KOH}+\mathrm{H}_{2}$

 

Reaction of Calcium With Water:

Calcium hydroxide and hydrogen gas are produced when calcium combines with water. This is another example of an exothermic process. Calcium begins to float when the bubbles of hydrogen gas attach to metal. This reaction is shown in the equation below.

$\mathrm{Ca}+2 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \rightarrow \mathrm{Ca}(\mathrm{OH})_{2}+\mathrm{H}_{2}$

 

Reaction of Magnesium With Water:

Cold water has no effect on magnesium. Magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas are produced when it is reacted with hot water. Due to hydrogen bubbles attaching to the metal, magnesium begins to float. This reaction is shown in the equation mentioned below.

$\mathrm{Mg}+2 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \rightarrow \mathrm{Mg}(\mathrm{OH})_{2}+\mathrm{H}_{2}$

Magnesium reacts quickly when steam is applied to it. In this reaction, magnesium oxide and hydrogen gas are produced. Water steam $+ Mg \rightarrow MgO + H_2$


Reaction of Water With Aluminum:

Cold or hot water has no effect on aluminum. However, aluminum oxide and hydrogen gas are created when steam is applied to aluminum. This reaction is mentioned in the equation given below.

$2Al + 3H_2O\rightarrow Al_2O_3 + 3H_2$


Reaction of Zinc With Water:

Cold or hot water has no effect on zinc. When zinc metal is exposed to steam, zinc oxide and hydrogen gas are produced.

$Zn + H_2O \rightarrow ZnO + H_2$


Reaction of iron with water:

Iron and cold water react so slowly that the reaction is undetectable. Rust is created when iron combines with air moisture (iron oxide). However, this is a rather slow process.

Iron oxide and hydrogen gas are produced when steam is applied to iron. The equation below demonstrates this.

$3Fe + 4H_2O \rightarrow Fe_3O_4 + 4H_2$

At any temperature, lead, copper, silver, and gold do not react with water.


Conclusion 

Metals are a group of elements that exhibit strong thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as malleability, ductility, and high light reflection. Metals have a tendency to lose electrons as they are electropositive. We have seen how metals react with water. The action of water on metals produces the corresponding metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas. The metal and water reactions are vigorous for some metals while some metals don't react with water at all. Sodium, magnesium, calcium, zinc, iron, aluminum, potassium react with water while other metals react slowly with water or do not react at all.

FAQs on Reaction of Metals With Water for JEE

1. What are non-metals?

Non-metals lack the properties of metals, such as hardness, luster, fusibility, malleability, ductility, and so on. Many substances, such as coal and sulphur, are too light and unattractive. When tapped with a hammer, they can be reduced to an incredibly thin, powdery substance. They are neither sonorous nor highly efficient heat- and electricity-conductors. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity, with the exception of graphite and gas carbon. Contrary to metals, non-metals are not malleable and ductile. Compared to non-metals, these react more with metals. At high temperatures, non-metals typically interact with one another.

2. Define ores of metals.

Ore is a naturally occurring rock or sediment that has precious minerals in it that may be extracted, processed, and sold for a profit. These minerals are usually metals. To extract the valuable metals or minerals, ore is taken from the soil through mining and then treated or purified, frequently via smelting. The concentration of the desired material in an ore is referred to as its grade. Typically, oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals like copper or gold are the minerals of interest. To separate the valuable components from the waste rock, ore must be purified and processed.

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