How do you calculate the hybridization of graphite when it is an allotrope of atoms? If we look at the hybridization of graphite formula, then we can only find the carbon atoms. Graphite is also classified as an organic compound. Given all the factors, we will discuss the hybridization of graphite or graphite hybridization, ‘What is Hybridization’, ‘What is Hybridization of Graphite’, ‘Hybridization of Diamond’, ‘Graphite Bond Angles’ and ‘Molecular Geometry’, etc.
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What is Hybridization?
Hybridization occurs when atomic orbitals are mixed to form new atomic orbitals. The new atomic orbitals hold a similar number of electrons as the previous ones. The energy and the features of new hybridized orbitals are an 'average' of the original unhybridized orbitals. The idea of hybridization was introduced because it was a good reason for the fact that all C-H bonds in molecules like methane are similar.
What is Hybridization of Graphite?
The type of hybridization of graphite is sp². The general electronic configuration of carbon is 1s², 2s², and 2p², where four valence electrons are laid out in the s and p orbitals. During the process of Hybridization, the 's' orbitals combine with the 'p' orbitals to form the type of hybridization, i.e., sp². In graphite, each carbon atom will form a covalent bond with the other three carbon atoms. The hybridized atoms are arranged hexagonally in various layers. Hence, the graphite has different properties because they have layers of weak forces between them.
Moreover, each carbon atom includes one non-bonded outer electron which becomes delocalized.
Graphite Formula in Chemistry
The graphite formula in Chemistry is C. It is the chemical formula of Graphite that represents the ratio or positions of elements in the graphical structure.
Bond Angle of Graphite
Graphite also is known as black lead or plumbago is an allotrope of a particular crystalline form of carbon. The array of carbon atoms in graphite is significantly distinct from that in the diamond. In Graphite, each carbon atom is covalently linked to another atom. All the bond angles of graphite are 120⁰ which is expected only if three bonding pairs of electrons are surrounded by each other.
Hybridization of Diamond
The electronic configuration of carbon is 1s², 2s², and 2p², i.e., with four valence electrons laid out in ‘s’ and ‘p’ orbitals. Keeping in view to create covalent bonds in diamond, the ‘s’ orbital combines with three other ‘p’ orbitals to form sp³. Hence, the four valence electrons are uniformly distributed among the sp³ orbitals where each orbital points to one of the four corners of the tetrahedron. The tetrahedral structure of diamond along with the highest measured charge density gives stability and strength to bond. Hence, all the bonds in a diamond are of similar length (1.54⁰A) and similar bond angles (109.47⁰).
Important Points to Remember
The ‘s’ orbital combines with the ‘p’ orbital to form sp² hybrid orbital in the Hybridization.
Each carbon atom is combined with another three atoms by the covalent bond.
The carbon atoms form layers with a hexagonal order of atoms.
Graphite Bond Angles and Molecular Geometry
The molecular geometry of graphite is a trigonal planar with a bond angle of 120⁰. The three bonds linked with each carbon atom in graphite inclined to move far away to reduce repulsion between the electron pair that falls at the vertices of a triangle.