India After Independence

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Indian History After Independence

Rich in culture and heritage, India has had a victorious history. The country is bestowed with brave hearts. The incredibility of India in its past has left a wonderful seal in the books of great leaders. But everything has its own results. India became officially Independent in the wake of 15th August 1947. There was neither a strong administrative base nor unity in the country. There was an immense conflict concerning community, religion, caste, or class. Several problems were faced by India after Independence. Due to the Partition, there were hundreds of refugees in the country from Pakistan. India comprised the 500 princely states. All of them had to be persuaded to come under a single democratic nation. There was an immediate need to draw up a constitution for the new India. An effective political system needed to be formed, which would enhance the economy. The new political and administrative system was supposed to fulfill all the requirements and expectations of the citizens.

Post Independence Period

The condition of India immediately after 1947 was unsettled. There was a lot of development that was needed in terms of the administration, economy, living conditions of the homeless, agriculture, and social justice. In addition to that, there was no unity among residents of the different states. At that time, India had an enormous population of 345 million. However, people are separated by natural factors like climate and social factors like Hinduism and other faiths, high castes, and low castes. The language was an enormous barrier, as almost every region had a different language of communication. People wore different dresses, ate different food, and belonged to different professions. The majority of the population lived in the villages and were extremely poor. The livelihood of the farmers, weavers, carpenters, and barbers depended on the regular success of the crops. In the cities, the factory workers lived in huge and crowded slums. None of these people had proper access to education and health care.

Writing of the Constitution

After the partition ended, under the guidance of Dr B.R Ambedkar, the constitution of India was framed. The constitution was a mixture of different countries' constitutions. While framing the particular constitution, the main criteria were to look upon that the constitution will be a combined structure of sovereign, democratic republic. In the 42nd constitution amendment of 1976, 3 words are taken special care of. They are "socialist", " secular" and "integrity", making it one of the biggest democratic of the world.

The country's political future was discussed in a series of meetings by members collectively known as the Constituent Assembly. The assembly was held in New Delhi between December 1946 and November 1949 and included people from different parts of the country and political parties. Their discussions resulted in the formation of the Constitution of India, which finally came into effect on 26th January 1950.

The Constitution of India incorporated several challenges. It would bring about a clear distinction between India before and after Independence. One of the main features was the adoption of the universal adult franchise. It granted every citizen of India the right to vote and choose their leaders, irrespective of their religion, gender, or caste. The people had no experience in electing their leaders ever. Most of the Indians were not aware of who to choose as the majority was uneducated. During the initiation of their Constitution, the USA and United Kingdom granted this right to one group of citizens at a time.

During post-Independence, the major population of the nation was Hindu. Many people hoped for the country to follow strict Hindu ideals. However, the Constitution granted legal equality to every citizen who lived in the country. Apart from Hindus and Muslims, Sikh, Christian, Parsi, and Jain populations would have the same opportunities in seeking jobs in the government, public or private sectors alike. Many had opposed this system and wanted a theocratic society for Hinduism like that of Pakistan. However, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru declared that a diverse country like India will not and must not be a “Hindu Pakistan.” 

Partition of India and Pakistan

After the great victory from British rule, India has to face a lot of challenges at the time of organizations that have to be carried out. After the victorious war from the British, the first thing that led to the partition of Indo-Pak. There was a huge exchange of population between India and Pakistan. In 1947, after the fight between India and Pakistan came to an end, another fight took place which was between India and Pakistan. At that time, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, along with Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru, helped to integrate 500 princely states in order to make a United Nation.

Over a number of 3.5M Hindus and Sikhs, from West Bengal, North-West Frontier province Balochistan east Bengal and send migrated to India in the fear of Muslim Pakistan dominance. The communal violence provided by Pakistan killed almost 1 million Hindus Muslims and Sikhs on 30th January of 1948. Nathuram Godsay, due to a misunderstanding, interpreted that Mahatma Gandhi was responsible for the partition, and assassinated him. After the death of Mahatma Gandhi, more than a million people followed the procession to the cremation grounds.

Major Challenges Took Place During Integration

In 1947, under the guidance of the iron man of India, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the integration process of India started. Out of all the states of India, the integration of 3 states became a major challenge for that particular time. The states contain

  • Junagadh: This state had a Hindu majority with a Muslim nawab. In order to shoot the matter, a voting system occurred in the state. The voting system led to 99% success as 99% of Hindu gave the vote to get integrated with India. The Nawab, however, took a decision that was unfavorable to the people of the state and refused to integrate with India, even though the state was not in contact with Pakistan.

  • Hyderabad: The state included the majority of Hindus with a Muslim Nizam. In order to get the state integrated as the Hindus wanted, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel sent the Indian army to depose the government which was coded as operation Polo. After some unnecessary revolts, the negotiations failed. The revolt took place between 13 and 29 1948 September. Next year, the state incorporated with the country, finally adding it to the United Nation.

  • The Area of Kashmir: The part included a majority of Muslims and a Hindu king. This led to the very first Indo-Pakistan that started in 1947 and continued till 1949. After some discussion and a lot of effort, finally, the constitution of  India was applied in Kashmir.

Major Changes During 1952 to 1964

After the first voting process got over, India got its first ruling party. The Indian National Congress became the first ruling party of independent India. Jawahar Lal Nehru became the first prime minister of India. The major changes that took place after the full accomplishment of the independent country can be listed below:

  • Nehruji took the untouchability act out of the country. 

  • In the Nehru administration, huge changes took place in the educational era. With the increase in primary schools, more colleges, institutions were built

  • The taxation of the poor farmers finally came to an end. 

  • A huge amount of benefits are provided to blue-collar workers. 

  • Many industries came into existence including steel, aviation, shipping, electricity and mining. 

  • The betterment of infrastructure came into existence which included construction of major dams, irrigation canals, roads, thermal and hydroelectric power stations and many more.

  • Apart from all the mentioned changes, India also got through some state reorganization too.

  • The foreign policy and military conflicts maintained by Nehru ji was an inspiration.

After the death of Nehru Ji, the place was taken by her own daughter Indira Gandhi ji. She also worked a lot for the welfare of the country.  A Lot has improved till now and still more has to be done in the upcoming year. By 2021, India has established itself as one of the reputed countries on the world list.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Give Three Problems that India Faced after Independence.

Newly Independent India faced a lot of problems among which three are;

  • After the partition of India, 8 million refugees had come into the country from Pakistan.

  • India had nearly 500 princely states ruled by Nawabs and Rajas. The new leaders had to persuade them to join the nation,

  • A new political system was required, which aimed to satisfy the needs and expectations of the citizens.

2. What was the role of the Planning Commission?

The Commission was to lift Indians out of poverty and to develop modern technologies and industries. The Commission agreed on a mixed economy model. Both the private and public sectors would generate jobs in the country and increase production. They would decide which industries should be initiated by the state and which industries by the market. The sectors would form a balance sheet between different regions and states. The private Commission would decide on the roles of the state and private sectors.