Khadar Definition

Khadir or Khadar are the low-lying areas, also called Nali or Naili. Khadar areas are vulnerable to floods and often have parts of former river beds that were made available for cultivation when the course of a river changes. It is sticky and retentive with moisture when wet.

Khadir formation is composed of fresh alluvial soil that is comparatively higher in the river's new silt content, is topped up with every flood cycle, as well as is very fertile.

In northern Haryana, which is the abundant prairie tract between both the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the depression of the Saraswati canal, the Khadir is also called Nali. According to the khadar map, these regions get flooded during the rains.


Khadar and Bangur

In the Indo-Gangetic regions of North India and Pakistan, Khadar basha and Bangur are words being used in Hindi, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Urdu to understand the two different kinds of river plains and alluvial soils. In the Doab areas, the areas of Bangur and Kadir are commonly found. Some villagers may have both the areas of Khadar as well as Bangar under their annual limit.

Difference Between Khadar and Bangur



The Khadar soils tend to exist in the lower regions of the valley. The bottom of a valley is found to be flooded each year.

The Bhangar soils exist in the upper reaches, approximately 30m far above the level of flood.

The texture of these soils is smoother.

These kinds of soils are found to be coarser in texture.

The Khadar soils are much more fertile as they are located almost annually in the low lying areas of the base of a valley that are flooded.

As these are located on the upper reaches, approximately 30m above the flood stage, these soils are far less fertile.

This is a kind of lowland formed up of old alluvium.

This is a kind of highland formed up of old alluvium.

It is highly suitable for intensive cultivation.

It is unsuitable for cultivation.

It is also called pet in the regions of Punjab.

It is also called dhaya in the regions of Punjab.


Khadir or Khadar also known as Nali or Naili are low-lying lands that are river floodplains and are often narrower than unflooded bangar zones. Flood-prone Khadar lands occasionally include portions of old river beds that became usable for agriculture after a river changed channel. When wet, it retains moisture and becomes sticky.  Khadir soil is made up of newly deposited alluvial soil with a greater fresh silt content from the river, which is renewed with each flooding cycle and is frequently quite fruitful. 

The lush prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern boundaries of the Saraswati channel depression, which floods during the rains, is known as the Khadir or Nali in northern Haryana. Khadar is an alluvial soil that can be found all throughout the floodplains.

Khadar refers to low-lying portions of a river floodplain that are often narrower than unflooded bangar sections. When the channel of a river changes, segments of former river beds that were once viable for farming become vulnerable to floods in Khadar regions. Old alluvial soils such as khadar have often been subject to changes in climate during their development. This is particularly the case in areas that have existed as alluvial valleys or basins for hundreds of thousands to millions of years

Khadar is more prolific than bangar and is nearly regenerated every year. Because the Indo-Gangetic plains are divided into doabs (zones between two rivers) by a slew of Himalayan rivers, the Indo-Gangetic plains are made up of alternating rivers, khadir, and bangar regions. The doabs' centres are made up of bangar, while the peripheries, which line the rivers, are made up of khadir. Old alluvium is called Bhangar. It contains calcareous deposits locally known as 'Kankar'. 

Soil is not very fertile. And hence not suitable for agriculture. Newer alluvium is called Khadar. It contains new alluvium. Used extensively for agriculture. Has no calcareous deposits. It has a lighter colour, a sandier texture, and is more porous. Near the riverbeds, this creature was discovered. Almost every year, a new layer of alluvium is deposited by river flooding. As a result, they are the Ganges' most fertile soils. The Khadar-rich flood plains of Punjab are referred to as 'Betlands' or 'Bets' by locals. The rivers in the Punjab-Haryana plains have large Khadar floodplains surrounded by bluffs known locally as Dhayas. These bluffs reach heights of up to 3 meters.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. The Khadar is Observed to be Highly Fertile. Why?

The khadar is observed to be highly fertile as Due to flood water that hits every year. The Khadar area is covered by Eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal. The texture of these soils is smoother. The khadar map represents that khadar is quite light in colour and consists of more recent deposits.

2. Define Doab?

Doab can be defined as the Land present between two tributaries of a river. It is a place where two small rivers merge and contribute to the creation of a large river. The small streams can be a river's tributaries as well. The Indo-Gangetic plains consist of alternating regions of rivers, bangar, and khadir as the North India is run by a multitude of Himalayan rivers that split the plains across doabs. Doab consists of the centres of the Bangar and peripheries of the khadir, that border the rivers.

3. Which soil type is the most common in India?

In India, alluvial soil is common. Flowing rivers have deposited alluvial soil. It often includes minute particles of various types of soil mixed with salts and other minerals, as well as decayed animal and vegetable debris. Bhangar is the name given to the old alluvium. It has calcareous deposits known as 'Kankar' in the area. The soil is not particularly fertile. As a result, it is unsuitable for cultivation. Khadar is the name given to newer alluvium. It's made out of fresh alluvium. Agriculturally, it is widely used.

4. Briefly describe Bhangar and  Khadar soil?

The geological divisions of alluvial soils are bhangar, khadar.

Bhangar: It extends across much of the northern plains. It is made up of alluvial dirt from the past. It has calcareous deposits known as 'Kankar' in the area. The soil is not particularly fertile.

Khadar: Ii can also be found on the northern plains, such as at Bhangar. It's made out of fresh alluvium. Agriculturally, it is widely used.

5. Why is khadar soil more fertile than bhangar soil?

Khadar soil is richer than Bangar soil because it is replenished each year by new layers of dirt during storm floods. Khadar soils also contain lower kankar nodule concentrations and a higher concentration of smaller particles, making them more fertile than Bangar soils. Khadar is new alluvium deposited by rivers in their floodplains each year. Bhangar is an earlier type of alluvium that can be found in the uplands above the floodplains. Bangar is ancient alluvium that has not been replenished by floods.

6. Why is Alluvial soil considered the most fertile soil?

In comparison to other soils, alluvial soil has the highest productivity. It is found primarily beside rivers and is carried by their streams during rock weathering. Tall grasses and woodlands cover the soil, as do a variety of crops such as rice, wheat, sugarcane,  maize, cotton, jute, oilseeds, fruits, and vegetables. The amount of iron oxide and lime in different places varies significantly. Because of its great porosity, alluvial soil is one of the best soils, requiring the least amount of water.

7. What are the limitations of alluvial soil for farmers?

Although alluvial soils are known for their great fertility, they do have a few drawbacks like-

  • These soils have a loose surface texture and are only suitable for intense cropping.

  •  Organic matter and nitrogen are deficient in alluvial soil.

  • Because of their origin and formation, they are also thought to be immature.

  • The lack of humus in the soil has an impact on soil density and nutrient retention.