Urea Formula

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Urea Chemical Formula

Urea is a nitrogenous compound that is mostly found in the urine of mammals. This organic compound is also called carbamide. It is a versatile chemical that contains two amide groups and carbonyl groups. That being said, it is basically a waste by-product whose production takes place when the body metabolizes proteins. It is the diamide of carbonic acid and is highly soluble in water, also known as Carbamide. Urea consists of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen. The chemical urea equation is - CH4N2O.


Properties of Urea

Following are the major characteristics of urea:-

  • Usually white or colourless

  • Crystalline

  • Solid

  • Organic compound (because it contains carbon)

  • Crystalline odourless

Chemical Structure of Urea

With respect to 2-dimensional chemical structures, urea can be depicted in the following manner:


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In context to 3-dimendional conformers, it is an interactive chemical structure model that provides the depiction of an animate, stick, ball and stick, space-filling, show hydrogens, wire-frame. 


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Chemical Structure of Urea

  • The chemical structure of urea is CO(NH2)2.

  • Urea Chemical formula which is CO(NH2)2 (is because it is a carbamide organic compound)

  • It has two NH2 groups joined by the functional group -carbonyl(C=O)

  • It is an amide that has two –NH2 groups joined by a functional group of carbonyl(C=O).

Urea Molecular Formula

To find the molecular formula of the Urea,

First, we have to count the number of each atom in the Urea.

We have

  •       1 carbon

  •       4 hydrogen

  •       2 nitrogen

  •       1 oxygen

Now we will place the number of each atom as a subscript to form the formula.

That is, CH4N2O

This is the Molecular Formula of the Urea.


Urea Structural Formula

Urea has a planar geometry in its canter as it is a double amide.

By looking at the structure, we can see that the carbon atom is double-bonded to an oxygen atom. Altogether we called it a carbonyl group.

Also, Nitrogen is attached to two hydrogen atoms forming an amide group. Therefore, with two amide groups along with a carbonyl then the result would be urea.


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Urea Equation

Chemical - CH4N2O

Its solubility is -50g/l (20 degrees),1670g/l(40 degrees), 2510g/l(60 degrees),400g/l(80 degrees). The melting point is133 degrees-135 degrees.


Reactivity Profile of Urea Formula

Urea is considered to be a weak base. Reacting with hypochlorites, it forms nitrogen trichloride that explodes impulsively in air. Same holds true for compounds named phosphorus pentachloride. It reacts with compounds such as azo and diazo to produce toxic gas. In addition, urea also reacts with strong decreasing agents to form flammable gases such as (hydrogen). 

The heating of inappropriate stoichiometric quantities of urea and sodium nitrite results in an explosion. Heated mixtures of urea and oxalic acid produced speedy evolution of gases, ammonia, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide (if hot, can be explosive). 

Urea and Titanium tetrachloride slowly produced a complex at 80° C during 6 weeks, decomposed aggressively at 90° C, Urea kindles spontaneously on stirring with nitrosyl perchlorate because of the formation of the diazonium perchlorate. 

Urea and Oxalic acid react at high temperatures to produce flammable and toxic ammonia and carbon monoxide gases, as well as inert carbon dioxide gas.

Fun Facts

  • The formula of urea in chemistry (CH4N2O) is given its composition because it consists mainly of water, ethanol, and glycerol.

  • No major side effects were documented with urea even after treatment of up to 9 months. 

  • It was concluded that a controlled dose of urea as a compound is a safe and efficacious treatment of the syndrome of unsuitable secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Role of Urea?

Answer: Urea is a nitrogenous compound having a carbonyl group combined to two amine groups consisting of osmotic diuretic activity. In vivo, urea is developed in the liver through the urea cycle from ammonia and is an ultimate end product of protein metabolism. Administration of urea boosts blood plasma osmolality, bringing about an improved flow of water from tissues, including cerebrospinal fluid and eye, the brain,  into interstitial fluid and plasma, hence reducing the pressure in those tissues and elevating urine outflow.

Noncombustible in nature, it has a density of 1.335 g /cc and appears as solid odourless white crystals or pellets. 


2. What are the Applications of Urea in Daily Life?

Answer: Urea is a carbonyl class containing two C-bound amine groups. It plays the role of a flour treatment agent, a human metabolite, a mouse metabolite and a fertilizer Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, a Daphnia magna metabolite, and an Escherichia coli metabolite. It is a one-carbon compound and a monocarboxylic acid amide. It is extracted from carbonic acid. It is a tautomer (structural isomers also called constitutional isomers)of a carbamimidic acid.

3. What is the Importance of Urea Formula?

Answer: The potency of oral urea in producing an adequately high osmotic diuresis with the syndrome of unsuitable secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In all patients, urea fixed the hyponatremia (concentration of sodium in your blood) regardless of a normal fluid intake.