The inorganic compound known as chloric acid is an oxoacid compound of chlorine. It means that a chloric acid is an acidic form of chlorine-containing an oxygen atom. The chloric acid formula, thus, can be given as HClO3 (It is not the chloric acid symbol). Or it can also be said that the common HClO3 compound name is chloric acid. The chloric acid chemical formula or the chloric acid molecular formula can also be given as ClHO3. Another one of the HClO3 chemical name is Chloric (V) acid. The structure of the chloric acid compound depicts two lone pairs of electrons and five covalent bonds. From the formula for chloric acid, you can determine the molecular weight of the compound which is 84.456 g/mol. You should be aware that there is hydrochloric acid no hydrogen chloric acid and hence no hydrogen chloric acid formula.
Properties of Chloric Acid
From the given formula of chloric acid, it is clear that the chlorine atom is bonded to both oxygen and hydrogen atoms. This is also clearly visible in the structure of the compound having HClO3 formula, which is the chloric acid chemical formula is shown below:
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Typically the molecule of the compound, having chloric acid as the chemical name for HClO3, is pyramidal in shape. This is because the two lone pairs of electrons exert a repulsive effect on the bonds between chlorine and hydroxyl groups and chlorine and oxygen atoms.
Commonly, chloric acid, which is the HClO3 compound name, can be prepared via a reaction of sulphuric acid with barium chlorate and the insoluble barium chlorate is later removed from the solution after the finishing of the reaction via precipitation. The reaction is given below:
Ba(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2 HClO3 + BaSO4.
The same chloric acid can also be prepared by the heating of hypochlorous acid which gives chloric acid and hydrogen chloride as products. The reaction is given below:
3 HClO → HClO3 + 2HCl.
Thermodynamically speaking, chloric acid is an unstable acid, especially with respect to disproportionation i.e. a redox reaction in which one compound of an intermediate oxygen state is converted to two compounds. But it is more stable when subjected to cold aqueous solutions up to a concentration of approximately 30% in the solution. A solution of 40% of chloric acid can be prepared up to 40% through careful evaporation under reduced pressure. Whenever the concentrations of chloric acid move beyond these concentrations, it decomposes and gives a variety of products, some of which are given below as examples:
8HClO3 → 4HClO4 + 2H2O + 2 Cl2 + 3O2, and
3 HClO3 → HClO4 + H2O + 2ClO2.
These reactions also say that chloric acid is a very powerful oxidising agent as can be realised from the formula for chloric acid. Hence, most of the organics and flammables when coming in contact with chloric acid they deflagrate i.e. burn away.