About Gas

You are surrounded by matter from everywhere. From desktops, school bags to juices all are a form of matter on this planet. Do you know the air you breathe is also a state of matter? Yes, it is true. Gas is one kind of matter, which indicates the importance of the gaseous state in our life. After all, without gas, there will be no life on the Earth. Let's dig out more about this precious form of matter.

What is Gaseous State?

You know already gases are everywhere around us in the atmosphere, which is an envelope of gases. The mixture of gases found in the atmosphere includes oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen, ozone, and much more. However, under standard pressure conditions and temperature, only 11 gases in the periodic table function in the gas state. These gases are known as pure gases that are Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), Neon (Ne), Xenon (Xe), Radon (Rn), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Fluorine (F), Chlorine (Cl), and Helium (He). 

It is the only form of matter that is compressible very tightly or expandable to fill a vast space. Gases expand and contract by expected amounts based on variations in temperature as well as pressure. For example, when the temperature increases gases expand too. 

Besides, molecules in the gas have a massive space between them in a gaseous state and are full of energy. Hence, gas has plenty of kinetic energy. The particles move quite swiftly and collide into one another, causing them to randomly disperse until they are uniformly spread all over the container. These collisions happen every second on every section of the walls that however look steady to our mind. 

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(Gas molecules exerting pressure on the walls of the container)

Characteristics Of Gas

  • Compressible

The gas molecules have a lot of distance between each other that makes them compressible as they can move freely. 

  • Expandable

The gaseous state is also expandable because the free movement of gas molecules enables them to take over any shape on the basis of the container they are in, filling the volume of the container.

  • Low Density

They are a matter of lower density as compared to other states of matter, i.e. solids and liquids. The low density is the reason behind gas particles move randomly and quickly against each other without any steady position. Since there is too much distance between the molecules their collision does not meddle with their movement. The low density of gas also offers fluidity to this matter.

  • Diffusive

As said above, there is a huge distance between gas particles. Thus, two or more gases can combine easily and quickly, which is called the diffusion process. This combination creates a homogeneous mixture.

  • No Volume and Shape

The gaseous state neither has a fixed volume nor a fixed shape. It means that gas has no structure. The countless collisions of the molecules on the container walls result in the gaseous pressure. Thus, the shape and volume of a gas state both depend on the container holding it. 

Pressure of Gas

The pressure is a vital measurement to define a gas. The gas pressure is the force per unit area exerted by it on the container holding it. More the pressure more will be the force exerted by the gas, and vice versa. The pressure of a gaseous state is measured in mmHg (millimetres of mercury) using a barometer that provides us with the barometric pressure.

Uses of Gas

Apart from breathing, there are a plethora of other applications of gas that make it one of the most crucial matters in today's era. Below is the list showing different ways in which one can use a gaseous state:

  • The gas is primarily used for heating, cooling, and cooking in the residential as well as commercial segments.

  • The gaseous state helps in electricity generation. Also, it can be utilized as an alternative source in renewable power generation plants if there is a lack of wind or sunshine.

  • This state of matter is used as steam in different industrial processes, such as textiles, plastics, polymers, paper, paints, dyes production as well as nickel and aluminium smelters.

  • Additionally, fertilizers, cosmetics and medicines are also produced with the help of natural gas.

  • Natural gas in the form of liquefied natural gas and compressed natural gas serves as a fuel for automobiles. As a result, it diminishes harmful emissions released into the air and smog pollution.

Gas Laws

Interestingly all gases somewhere adhere to gas laws irrespective of the variance in their chemical properties. Several scientists developed the laws for gas depending upon pressure, amount, temperature, and volume of a gas state. These laws help define the connection between these factors. Here are the five gas laws:

  1. Boyle's Law - The Pressure-Volume Law

  2. Charles' Law - The Temperature-Volume Law

  3. Avogadro's Law - The Volume Amount Law

  4. Gay-Lussac's Law - The Pressure Temperature Law

  5. The Ideal Gas Law

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is The Method To Measure The Mass Of Gases?

You can know the mass of a gas by measuring the weight of the container containing the gas then remove the gas and again weigh that container. The mass of the gas is the difference between those two weights.

The vapour pressure of a gas, the energy of a gas, the volume of gas, or mass of gas can be measured based on the requirement. The measurable properties of the gas are denoted in the equation as pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), and a number of molecules are represented in a mole number (mol or n). The Kelvin scale is usually used to measure the temperature of the gas.

2. Which Are The Most Toxic Gases in The Environment?

Carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, chlorine, and phosgene are amongst the most dangerous gases present in our environment. Air pollution is the major cause of the increase of toxic gases in the air. These toxic gases have a drastic impact on the health of humans. If any of this gas is inhaled, ingested, or absorbed by the eyes or skin, it can result in damaging of living tissues, severe diseases, and impairment of the central nervous system. Also, the odorless carbon monoxide gas is capable to kill within a few minutes of inhaling. These poisonous gases affect the environment and other living organisms as well.