Sugar Formula

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What is Sugar?

Simple carbohydrates that are soluble in water and sweet in taste are called “sugar”. Sugar is white in color and does not have any odor. It is the richest source of energy. The sugar molecule is the most common term used in organic chemistry in biomolecules. Sugar formula is also called sucrose molecular formula. In this article, we will explain the types of carbohydrates, cane sugar formula, the chemical formula of glucose, and fructose formula.


Types of Carbohydrate 

On the basis of the number of saccharides in hydrolysis reaction, it can be classified as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.


Monosaccharides

  • These are the simplest sugars that cannot be further hydrolyzed.

  • In their generalized formula x is always equal to y means the number of carbon and oxygen atoms are the same.

  • All monosaccharides exist in d and l form, except the dihydroxyacetone.

  • Its structure can be either a ring or a straight chain.

  • Six membered rings are known as pyranose and five-membered rings are furanose.

  • Example- glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose.

Fructose Formula:

Fructose is an isomer of glucose. Its chemical formula is C6H12O6. In this formula C represents the carbon, H represents hydrogen and O represents oxygen.


Fructose Structure

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Fructose Straight-Chain Structure

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Chemical Formula of Glucose

Glucose is an isomer of fructose and epimer of galactose and mannose. Its chemical formula is C6H12O6. In the chemical formula of glucose C represents carbon, H represents hydrogen and O represents oxygen.


 Glucose Structure

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Glucose Straight Chain Structure

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Oligosaccharides

  • These are the carbohydrates that on hydrolysis gives 2 to 10 monosaccharides.

  • In oligosaccharides, the monosaccharide is linked together by glycosidic bonds.

  • These can be further classified into disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and Pentasaccharides.

  • Example: sucrose, maltose, and lactose.

Sucrose

  • Sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.

  • Sucrose is called cane sugar or table sugar or commercial sugar.

  • Sucrose is also known as invert sugar.

  • It is a non-reducing sugar.

  • The direction of glycosidic linkage in sucrose is 1’-2”.

  • Its molecular weight is 342.3 g/mol.

Sucrose Formula

Sugar, sucrose, and cane sugar are the same molecule. The sucrose chemical formula is C12H22O11. In sugar molecular formula C represents carbon, H represents hydrogen and O represents oxygen. 12 atoms of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen combine to form one molecule of sucrose.


Sucrose Structure

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Polysaccharides

A polysaccharide is composed of a large number of monosaccharide units. These are insoluble in nature and do not taste sweet. Example: starch and cellulose.


Conclusion

The sugar molecule is a simple carbohydrate that is soluble in water and sweet in taste. carbohydrate can be classified into three types: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. The sugar chemical formula is C12H22O11, the fructose formula is C6H12O6 and the chemical formula of glucose is C6H12O6.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question: Explain Carbohydrates and their Types.

Answer: Simple carbohydrates that are soluble in water and sweet in taste are called “sugar”. On the basis of the number of saccharides in hydrolysis reaction, carbohydrates can be classified as monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.


Monosaccharides- These are the simplest sugars that cannot be further hydrolyzed. Example: glucose and fructose.


Oligosaccharides- These are the carbohydrates that on hydrolysis gives 2 to 10 monosaccharides. Example: sucrose and lactose.


Polysaccharides- polysaccharides are composed of large numbers of monosaccharides. Example: cellulose and starch.

Question: What are the Properties of Sucrose?

Answer: The properties of sucrose are given below:  

  • Sucrose is invert sugar.

  • It is a non-reducing sugar.

  • The direction of glycosidic linkage in sucrose is 1’-2”.

  • Its molecular weight is 342.3 g/mol.

  • Its density is 1.587 g/cm³.