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Urine

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Last updated date: 29th Feb 2024
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Introduction

Have you ever wondered what is the composition of the waste you pass out while urinating? What is its composition? We will answer all questions in this article to your curiosity about learning.


Our body has two bean-shaped organs, kidneys, which produce urine by filtering waste products and extra water out of our blood. Urine is the name of the waste. It travels via your blood to your kidneys. Urine leaves the kidneys and flows through two small tubes called ureters to the bladder.


Almost 95 per cent of human pee/urine is water. The remaining components include smaller amounts of urea (2%), creatinine (0.1%), and uric acid (0.03%), as well as other ions and molecules. With this, we will also learn about the process of Glomerular Filtration, reabsorption, and secretion of urine formation. So let's dive deeper.


Urine


Urine


What is Urine Made of?

Urine is produced when urea, water, and other waste products are transported through the nephrons and the renal tubules of the kidney, the two ureters. Urine passes through these small tubes from the kidneys to the bladder. Via the technique of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion, the nephrons of the kidneys filter blood and produce urine. About 95% of urine is water, and 5% is waste. The nitrogenous wastes urea, creatinine, ammonia, and uric acid are discovered in urine.


The Function of Nephron

The kidney has an extensive blood supply through the renal arteries that leave the kidney via the renal vein. Each kidney has functional units called nephrons.


The glomerulus filters your blood, and the tubules expel toxins while restocking critical nutrients. This is the function of the nephron within the kidneys. Each nephron performs both of these functions. Through the processes of filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion, the nephron creates urine.


Nephron


Nephron


Composition of Urine

Water and some of the other substances present in the blood—such as protein, glucose, and other nutrients—return to circulation after departing through the kidneys, while toxins and additional substances are excreted.


Urine includes:


  • Water

  • Urea-A waste product created when proteins are broken down is urea

  • The blood pigment urochrome, which gives urine its azure/yellowish hue,

  • Various salts

  • A byproduct of the typical breakdown of muscle called creatinine

  • Derivatives of the bile

  • Ammonia


Composition of Urine

Composition of Urine


Normal Urine Colour

The colour of your urine is an easy and early indication of your health status. Urine is a mixture of electrolytes, waste, and water in your body that is filtered by the kidneys. This is what gives urine its unique colour; hence, any variation in urine's colour is cause for concern. Ideally, urine colour ranges from clear to pale yellow due to the presence of a yellow pigment known as urochrome in the urine.


By dissolving haemoglobin, urochrome pigment is created. The yellowness of your urine depends on how hydrated your body is. Better hydration will clear urine. If you eat a diet rich in B vitamins, your urine may appear neon yellow-coloured. Therefore, we can conclude that normal urine colour is azure or yellowish.


Acidic Urine

Comparing the pH range of other body fluids, urine has the widest range. pH levels of urine should range from 4.5 and 8. A pH of 6 or below is acidic, whereas a pH of 8 or more is basic or alkaline.


A urinalysis includes the measurement of urine pH. Physicians can identify several disorders using the outcomes of a urine pH test.


In an environment where the urine is acidic, kidney stones may form. Sufficient water is needed to dilute the uric acid (a component of urine); failing in diluting it results in urine becoming more acidic.


Summary

To conclude all the conceptual understanding regarding urine in this article, we can say that the urinary system comprises the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The purpose of the urinary system is to remove waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, regulate electrolytes and metabolite levels, and regulate blood pH.


In this article, we looked at  What urine is made up of, what function nephrons perform, the composition of urine, what normal urine colour is and at last looked, at acidic urine. We hope we were able to clear all your doubts and were easy to understand.

FAQs on Urine

1. Which is the best medicine for urine infection?

Antibiotics get rid of the microorganisms that cause bladder infections. Experts recommend using antibiotics to treat UTIs.

2. How much water should be drunk in urine infection?

Drinking six to seven litres of water throughout the day is necessary. Drinking a surplus of water deters bacteria from hoarding in the bladder and controls infection.

3. What is the reason for frequent urination?

Sometimes, the bladder of some people is overactive, due to which the person starts urinating more frequently. This problem can also be caused by urinary tract infections (UTIs). If there is an infection in the urine, there is also a burning sensation during urination. Frequent urination occurs even if there is a kidney infection. Frequent urination may be caused by several conditions, including infection, sickness, injury, or bladder irritation. conditions that increase the output of urine. muscle, neuron, or other tissue alterations that have an impact on bladder function.