Formation of Adverbs

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Adverbs refer to a word or a phrase used in a sentence to add to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb used in the sentence. 

Example:

Rajiv draws neatly.  (adds to the meaning of the verb ‘draws’)

You are absolutely right. (adds to the meaning of the verb ‘ right ‘)

Rashmi sang fairly well. (adds to the meaning of the verb ‘well’)

An adverb can also modify a preposition, a phrase, and also a sentence, by giving more detailed information.

Example:

             His class is right above mine.

In the above example, the word ‘right’ adds information to the preposition ‘above’.

I have gone all through the notebook.

Here, ‘all’ adds information to the phrase ‘through the notebook’. 

Certainly, Dilip is to be blamed for his friend’s accident.

The word certainly at the beginning of the sentence modifies the whole sentence.

In this segment, we will learn about the formation of adverbs. 


Formation of Adverbs

Most adverbs of manner are formed by adding –ly to the adjectives. The meaning of the adverbs, in this case, remains related to the meaning of the original adjectives. 

Example:

Active – actively

Beautiful – beautifully          

Cunning – cunningly

Dangerous – dangerously

Elegant – elegantly

violent – violently

faithful – faithfully

slow – slowly

tactful – tactfully

unfortunate – unfortunately

However, adjectives ending in –ly are used as adverbs differently. Such adjectives are fatherly, lovely, lively, motherly, manly, womanly, silly, sickly, jolly, etc. The correct format of these adjectives being used as adverb phrases is as follows.

in a + adjective + manner/ fashion/ way



Example:


  Adjectives


  Adverbs


He has manly qualities.



He dealt with the enemy in a manly way.


Ramesh is very friendly.


Ramesh behaves in a friendly manner.


The old man is quite fatherly.



The old man treats others in a fatherly manner.


Adverbs End Inward to Show Direction.

Such adverbs are onward, downward, upward, eastward, inward, outward, skyward, seaward, southward, northward, etc.

Example:

He flew the kite skyward.

The soldiers marched forward.

The cattle returned homeward.

Adverbs End in –Wise Show Manner or Direction.

Such adverbs are: class wise, memberwise, statewise, countrywide, breadthwise, clockwise, anticlockwise, lengthwise, etc.

Example:

The Chairman allotted the work memberwise.

The budget allocates funds statewise.

To open the tin, turn the cap anticlockwise.

Some adverbs are formed by adding a – to the beginning of a noun or adjective. 

Such adverbs are: afresh, aside, aloud, afar, ajar, along, across, ahead, around, abroad, awhile, etc.

Example:

He left the bottle ajar.

They worked on the project afresh.

Rajat read the poem aloud.

Note: All words beginning with a are not adverbs. Some of them are adjectives or prepositions. They are about, aflame, afire, afloat, alive, awake, etc.

Some Adverbs are the Same as the Adjectives in Form.

Example:


  Adjectives


   Adverbs

My friend is a fast runner.


My friend runs fast.

Mr. Swain lives in the next flat.


What comes next in the series?

Vijay is a hard worker.


Vijay works hard.

He came through the back entrance.

Go back.



  Adjectives


  Adverbs

Dilip is an early riser.


Dilip rises early.

The bus is late today.


The bus arrived late yesterday.

His monthly salary is meager.


I pay the bill monthly.

He is no better than you.

He knows me better than you.

He is well now.

He played well.


Other words used both as adjectives and adverbs are: daily, weekly, early, high, low, last, long, near, straight, wide, worse, right, wrong, far, inside, outside, etc. As adjectives, these words are used both attributively and predicatively. Depending on their use, we can know where they are used as an adjective or an adverb. 

Some Adverbs are Compounded with Prepositions.

Such adverbs are thereby, therefrom, therein, herewith, thereof, thereon, therewith, hereby, hereafter, herein, etc. 

Solved Questions

1. Write Whether the Italicized Words are Adverbs or Adjectives.

  1. My sister is a hard worker.

  2. The post office is very near.

  3. Open your mouth wide.

  4. He looks better today. 

  5. Our examination is drawing near.

  6. She runs very fast.

  7. She is a fast runner.

  8. The bus is late today.

  9. I am not well today.

  10. I pay the bill monthly.

Solutions

  1. In this line, the word ‘hard’ is an adjective because it talks about the noun ‘worker’.

  2. Here, the word ‘near’ is an adjective because it talks about the noun ‘post office’.

  3. Here, the word ‘wide’ is an adverb because it is adding to the verb ‘open’.

  4. In this line, the word ‘better’ is an adjective because it is describing the noun ‘looks’.

  5. In this line, the word ‘near’ is an adverb because it is adding to the verb ‘drawing’.

  6. Here, the word ‘fast’ is an adverb because it is adding to the verb ‘runs’.

  7. Here, the word ‘fast’ is an adjective because it is describing the noun ‘runner’.

  8. In this line, the word ‘late’ is an adjective because it is describing the noun ‘bus’.

  9. Here, the word ‘well’ is an adjective because it is talking about the noun ‘I’.

  10. In this line, the word ‘monthly’ is an adverb because it is talking about the verb ‘pay’.

2. Put the Adverbs in the Correct Order if They are Misplaced.

  1. He lived for six years happily in Kolkata.

  2. The tickets sold at the cinema this afternoon quickly.

  3. The waves crashed against the shore loudly.

  4. We hung the picture on the wall carefully. 

  5. He did not pass the exam, unfortunately.

  6. They quietly left this afternoon.

  7. The weather is good generally.

  8. He stood at the bus stop patiently.

  9. We arrived last night here by bus.

  10. He comes often late.

Solution

  1. He lived happily in Kolkata for six years.

  2. The tickets sold quickly at the cinema this afternoon.

  3. The waves crashed loudly against the shore.

  4. We hung the picture carefully on the wall.

  5. Unfortunately, he did not pass the examination.

  6. They left quietly this afternoon.

  7. Generally, the weather is good.

  8. He stood patiently at the bus stop.

  9. We arrived here by bus late at night.

  10. He often comes late.

3. Pick Out the Adverbs in the Following Sentences.

  1. The teacher did not come today.

  2. His mother cooks well.

  3. My uncle has just gone out.

  4. I quite agree with you.

  5. The boy works very hard.

  6. He comes here daily.

  7. He went home.

  8. I have told you twice.

  9. He seldom comes here.

  10. The box is too heavy to lift.

Solution

  1. today is the adverb in the sentence.

  2. well is the adverb in the sentence?

  3. just is the adverb in the sentence.

  4. quite is the adverb in the sentence.

  5. hard is the adverb in the sentence.

  6. daily is the adverb in the sentence.

  7. home is the adverb in the sentence.

  8. twice is the adverb in the sentence.

  9. seldom and here are the adverbs in the sentence.

  10. too is the adverb in the sentence.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Give Some Examples of the Words that are Used as Both Adverbs and Adjectives.

Ans. The words that are used as both adverbs and adjectives are: daily, right, wrong, far, straight, fast, hard, back, better, well, etc. 

2. Define Adverbs.

Ans. Adverbs refer to the words or phrases that are used in a sentence to add specific information or description for a verb, or another adverb used in the sentence. 

3. What is the Difference Between an Adjective and an Adverb?

Ans. An adjective is a word that describes or modifies or identifies a noun or a pronoun used in a sentence whereas an adverb modifies or identifies a verb or another adverb used in a sentence.

4. How is an Adverb Formed?

Ans. An adverb can be formed by adding ‘-ly’ to an adjective or adding ‘a’ before a noun or an adjective.