A mixture is defined as the combination of two or more substances that are combined physically. They can be separated by physical method. As there are no chemical changes involved, the components’ individual properties remain the same. In a mixture, every component has its own identity. During the formation of a mixture, there is no change in energy, and the Boiling point and the melting point of the mixture depend upon the characteristics of the constituents. Impure substances are also referred to as a mixture. Some example of the mixture includes:
Air: It is a mixture of various gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, neon, etc.
Seawater: It is a mixture of various salt and water.
Crude Oil: It is a mixture of Hydrocarbons.
Almost everything we see around is nothing but a mixture of one or more substances. Eg: The food we eat is a mixture of various ingredients, the air we breathe is a combination of gases and the fuel we use in vehicles is also a mixture of Hydrocarbons.
Mixtures can be broadly classified into two types: Homogeneous mixture and Heterogeneous mixture.
In this topic, we will study the definition of homogeneous Mixtures, types of Homogeneous Mixtures, Let's start with the definition of Homogeneous Mixtures.
What are Homogeneous Mixtures?
A homogeneous mixture is a type of mixture that has the same proportions of its components in a given amount of sample. Homogeneous mixtures can be solid, liquid, or gas. They have the same appearance and chemical composition throughout.
Examples of Homogeneous Mixtures include Water, Air, Steel, Detergent, Saltwater mixture, etc.
Alloys are formed when two or more metals are mixed together in some specific ratio. They usually are homogeneous mixtures. Example: Brass, bronze, steel, and sterling silver.
(If multiple phases exist in alloys, then they will be considered as heterogeneous mixtures) These are some different types of Homogeneous Mixtures present around us. As we have discussed What homogeneous mixtures are, Let’s understand the classification of mixtures.
Classification of homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous mixtures can be Further Classified into:
A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of two or more substances. In it, the particles are suspended throughout the solution in bulk and can be seen easily by our naked eyes. In this type of mixture, all the components are completely mixed and all the particles can be seen under a microscope and a mixture of particles has a diameter greater than 1000 nm. The particles do not pass through a filter paper. So a suspension can be separated by filtration. It scatters the beam of light passing through them because of its large particle size. The suspension is unstoppable and the particles settle down after some time. For example, Muddy water, A mixture of flour and water, Flour in water, Slaked lime for whitewashing, etc.
A solution can be defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. The size of solute particles in the solutions is extremely small. It is less than 1 nm in diameter. Eg: When the salt dissolves in water, sugar in water, soda water, etc. Solutions have two major components, one is solute and the other one is solvent.
The component of a solution that dissolves the other component in itself is termed a solvent. In a solution, the solvent constitutes the larger component. For example, A solution containing sugar in water ( Solid in the liquid). Sugar acts as a solute and water is the solvent.
The component of the solution which is dissolved in the solvent is termed as solute. The solute is the smaller component in the given solution. Eg: In the above example sugar acts as a solute, In a solution of iodine in alcohol known as ‘tincture of iodine, iodine is the solute. Similarly, in cold drinks ( or soda water), carbon dioxide gas is the solute.
Colloidal solutions or Colloids are the mixtures in which microscopically dispersed insoluble particles of one substance are suspended in another substance, Not all the mixtures are colloids, The mixture where suspended particles don’t settle down at the bottom but get evenly dispersed into another substance. The size of the colloids ranges from 1nm to 1000 nm. Colloidal Solutions are divided into the following types: sol, emulsion, foam, aerosol, and gel.
Sol is a colloidal system in which the dispersed phase is solid, and the dispersion medium is liquid. Eg: Blood, Ink, Paint, Mud, etc.
An emulsion is a colloidal system in which the dispersed phase is liquid and the dispersion medium is another liquid. Eg: Milk, Salad dressing, Brewed coffee
Foam is a colloidal system in which the dispersed phase is gas, and the dispersion medium is solid or liquid. Eg: Whipped cream, Bubble bath, Fire retardant, etc.
An aerosol is a colloidal system in which the dispersed phase is a solid or a liquid particle, and the dispersion medium is a gas. Eg: Hairspray, Perfume, Mist, Fog, etc.
The gel is a colloidal system in which the dispersed phase is solid and the dispersion medium is liquid. Eg: Toothpaste, Jam, Cheese, Rubber, Gelatin, etc.
Did You Know?
Tyndall effect is defined as the phenomenon in which the particles in a colloidal solution scatter the beams of light which are directed towards them. This effect is shown by all colloidal solutions and some suspensions. The Tyndall effect is used to check if the given solution is a colloid or not. The intensity of scattering of light is proportional to the density of the colloidal particles and the frequency of the incident light.
When a beam of light passes through a colloid, the colloidal particles present in the solution do not allow the beam of light to pass through them completely. The light particles collide with the colloidal particles and are scattered in different directions. This phenomenon of scattering makes the path of the light beam visible.