Lipids are a complex compound of fatty acids. It can be of two types: simple Lipid or complex Lipid. Terpenes are one of the Classifications of Lipids. In this article, we have covered Lipids in detail. What are terpenoids? The Terpenes meaning is the Lipid compound that contains isoprenoid units or rings. The isoprenoid ring is the five-carbon ring. Its formula is C5H8. The word Terpene originally was called turpentine. The monomer of Terpene is isoprene unit.
Classification of Terpenoids
Terpenoids can be classified into three types.
These compounds are the type of terpenoids. This type of terpenoids contain three six-membered carbon rings and the fourth ring contain five carbon atoms. All these rings are fused to form a total of seventeen carbon atoms which are known as steroid molecules. So, we can say that steroids are the seventeen carbon atoms terpenoids molecules. Examples of steroids are estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and cholesterol.
Carotenoid is a type of terpenoids. These molecules contain a long chain of fatty acid that have a double bond and contain a six-member carbon ring at each end. These compounds are found in pigmented parts of the plants like carotenoids and xanthophyll. These compounds provide yellow, red, and orange colour to the plant parts. This molecule does not help in photosynthesis.
These molecules are the type of terpenoids. The terpenoids which consist only of isoprenoid units are called terpenes. Small molecules of terpenoids are volatile in nature and give a pleasant odour. Therefore, these are used in making perfumes.
Classification of Terpenes
The classification of terpenes is based on the isoprene units.
What is Terpene Oil?
Terpene oil is the natural compound present in the flower or the buds of the cannabis plant. It can be extracted from cannabis by the vapourisation or steam distillation process. In this process, terpenes turn into vapour and get converted into tetrahydrocannabinol. Then it boils at a temperature of around 157 degrees celsius. The practical yield of this process is very low.
Terpenes can be extracted from the plant by the other process like:
What are Advanced Terpenes?
Advanced terpenes are the modified form of terpenes. These molecules are synthesised by combining the different types of hydrocarbons so that they can be used in different processes.
The terpene structure can contain one or more isoprene units. In the terpene structure, the unsaturation and functional groups can vary depending on the nature of the compound. Terpenes can be classified on the basis of isoprene units they contain.
Monoterpene- These molecules contain two isoprene units.
Sesquiterpenes- These molecules contain three isoprene units.
Diterpenes- These molecules contain four isoprene units.
Triterpenes- These molecules contain six isoprene units.
Terpenes found in Cannabis Include:
Examples of Terpenes are given below:
Monoterpenes- Pinene, nerol, cetrol, camphor, menthol, and limonene.
Sesquiterpenes- Nerolidol and farnesol
Diterpenes- Phytol and vitamin A1
Effects of Terpenes on Human
The response of the terpenes is dependent on the dose of the terpenes.
Due to the vibrant aromantic smell of the terpenes, it is used in the various aromatherapies.
It can enhance the effect of CBD and THC in the human body.
Terpenes can be used as an antibiotic drug.
It possesses anti-inflammatory properties.
Terpenes can be used as antioxidant, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, and antiseptic agents.
Cannabinoids and terpenes work in a synergistic manner.
It is used in making anticancer drugs.
It is used in treating anxiety and depression in humans.
Uses of Terpene
Terpene can be used for various purposes:
Terpenes are used in aromatherapy.
Terpene oil is used in cooking for adding flavours to the food.
Terpene oil is used in vaping devices.
Terpenes have a soothing property. Therefore, it is used in topical application.
Some Important Terpenes
Did You Know?
The process of terpene extraction has a very interesting thing in it, steam produced during the process does not affect the concentration of terpenes.
Beta-caryophyllene terpene has a spicy-sweet aroma that resembles cannabinoids.