Dhristi JEE 2022-24

About Organic Solvent

Organic solvents are those which are used by every human being in most of the daily routine activities such as disinfectant treatment to remove tough grease stains, perfumes or cologne, laundry detergents, etc., 


Organic solvents are chemical compounds that have a carbon-based molecular structure, they are widely used in dissolving material to create a solution or even to extract one material from another material. In general, the solvent is a substance that has the capability to dissolve any other substance. All these solvents consist of carbon atoms in the compound structure.


The molecular structure of an organic solvent consists of a carbon atom and in a few cases has hydrogen atoms. These solvents are mainly classified into molecular structures as natural and synthetic solvents.


Natural Solvents – The solvents that are naturally produced by living organisms are called natural solvents.


Synthetic Solvents – The solvents that are produced from chemical reactions in various organic compounds are called synthetic solvents.


Types of Organic Solvents

The organic solvents are classified into different types based on the structure and the functional group. They are,


Aliphatic Solvents- These are solvents that belong to the alkene classes. They are generally nonpolar in nature. Oil extraction, paint, dye, pharmaceuticals, polymerization, and adhesives are some applications of aliphatic solvents.


Aromatic Solvents- These solvents are similar to the aliphatic solvents as they are nonpolar solvents. This solvent is used in the application of industrial solvents for adhesives, paints, printing inks, extraction processes, decreasing insecticides, etc.


Carbonyls Solvents- Carbonyls solvent includes esters and they are said to exhibit polar properties. These solvents are widely used in nail paint removers, electronic cleaners, circuit boards, decaffeination, glues, and also in food flavoring substances.


Properties of Organic Solvents

Organic solvents consist of different physical and chemical properties some of them are listed below


Organic Solvents are Volatile in Nature- Volatile solvents are solvents that have vaporizing abilities. Due to the volatile nature, a smell is released into the air due to organic solvents.


Organic Solvents Exhibit a Low Boiling Point- Organic solvents have very low boiling points. Since they have a low boiling point, they are highly volatile in nature.


Organic Solvents are Colorless Liquids- These solvents are colorless, transparent liquids that have lower molecular weights.


Applications of Organic Solvents

Organic solvents are highly useful in various fields. They are used in coatings, polishes, as a paint thinner and remover, as cleaning agents, as a nail polish remover such as acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, detergents, perfumes, spot removers, and also used in various chemical syntheses and processes, etc.

FAQs on Organic Solvent

1. What are the properties of Organic Solvent?

The following are the properties of organic solvents: 


Volatility: Organic solvents are naturally volatile and have the ability to vaporize. Due to its volatile nature, organic solvents extract smell in the presence of air.


Low Boiling Point: Organic solvents are characterized by very low boiling points. This is due to its volatility


Colour of Liquid: Organic solvents are transparent in nature and have lower molecular weights.


Density: the density of the organic solvents differs widely as some organic solvents are denser than water, and some of them are less dense than water.

2. What are the three types of organic solvents?

Aliphatic Solvents- These are solvents that belong to the alkene classes. They are generally nonpolar in nature. Oil extraction, paint, dye, pharmaceuticals, polymerization, and adhesives are some applications of aliphatic solvents.


Aromatic Solvents- These solvents are similar to the aliphatic solvents as they are nonpolar solvents. This solvent is used in the application of industrial solvents for adhesives, paints, printing inks, extraction processes, decreasing insecticides, etc.


Carbonyls Solvents- Carbonyls solvent includes esters and they are said to exhibit polar properties. These solvents are widely used in nail paint removers, electronic cleaners, circuit boards, decaffeination, glues, and also in food flavoring substances.

3. What is an organic solvent?

Organic solvents are those which are used by every human being in most of the daily routine activities such as disinfectant treatment to remove tough grease stains, perfumes or cologne, laundry detergents, etc., Organic solvents are chemical compounds that have a carbon-based molecular structure, they are widely used in dissolving material to create a solution or even to extract one material from another material. In general, the solvent is a substance that has the capability to dissolve any other substance. All these solvents consist of carbon atoms in the compound structure.

4. Give some important points on Organic solvents?

The following are some of the important points regarding organic solvents:


Organic solvents are chemical compounds that consist of carbon-based molecular structures.


These solvents promote dehydration and reduce the dialectic constant resulting in an increase in electrostatic interactions.


They contain at least one carbon atom with a few hydrogen atoms. 

In general, solvents are sorted as Natural and Synthetic Solvents based on their molecular structure.


Examples of substances that can be dissolved by organic solvents are Lacquers, varnishes, and adhesives.

5. What are the types of organic solvents based on their molecular structure?

Organic solvents are chemical compounds that have a carbon-based molecular structure, they are widely used in dissolving material to create a solution or even to extract one material from another material. 


The molecular structure of an organic solvent consists of a carbon atom and in a few cases has hydrogen atoms. These solvents are mainly classified into molecular structures as natural and synthetic solvents.


Natural Solvents- The solvents that are naturally produced by living organisms are called natural solvents.


Synthetic Solvents- The solvents that are produced from chemical reactions in various organic compounds are called synthetic solvents.

6. What is Organic Solution?

Organic Solution or organic solvents are generally carbon-based substances. In chemistry, a solvent refers to any substance which is capable of dissolving other substances. Organic solvents have at least one carbon atom in their structure along with hydrogen atoms. Organic solutions are generally volatile with low boiling points. They may be apolar or polar based on their dielectric constants. Some common examples are Acetone, Benzene, TFH, Chloroform, Acetic Acid, etc. These organic solvents are mainly utilized in our day-to-day products like nail polish removers, paints, dyes, textiles, electronic cleaners, etc. although incredibly useful. They can also be hazardous.

7. What are the Types of Solvents in Organic Chemistry?

The most common three types of solvents in organic chemistry are apolar, polar aprotic and polar protic. The polarity differentiation is done based on the dielectric constant of the solvents. Apolar or nonpolar solvents have low dielectric constants which refers to the electric charge between the molecules being evenly distributed. They are not acceptable solvents for charged elements like anions. Aprotic solvents contain a large bond dipole moment and do not include OH groups in them. They have a higher dielectric constant between 5 to 20. On the other hand, Polar Protic solvents contain an OH group with a nonpolar tail. 

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