Organic solvents are those which are used by every human being in most of the daily routine activities such as disinfectant treatment to remove tough grease stains, perfumes or cologne, laundry detergents, etc.,
Organic solvents are chemical compounds that have a carbon-based molecular structure, they are widely used in dissolving material to create a solution or even to extract one material from another material. In general, the solvent is a substance that has the capability to dissolve any other substance. All these solvents consist of carbon atoms in the compound structure.
The molecular structure of an organic solvent consists of a carbon atom and in a few cases has hydrogen atoms. These solvents are mainly classified into molecular structures as natural and synthetic solvents.
Natural Solvents – The solvents that are naturally produced by living organisms are called natural solvents.
Synthetic Solvents – The solvents that are produced from chemical reactions in various organic compounds are called synthetic solvents.
Types of Organic Solvents
The organic solvents are classified into different types based on the structure and the functional group. They are,
Aliphatic Solvents- These are solvents that belong to the alkene classes. They are generally nonpolar in nature. Oil extraction, paint, dye, pharmaceuticals, polymerization, and adhesives are some applications of aliphatic solvents.
Aromatic Solvents- These solvents are similar to the aliphatic solvents as they are nonpolar solvents. This solvent is used in the application of industrial solvents for adhesives, paints, printing inks, extraction processes, decreasing insecticides, etc.
Carbonyls Solvents- Carbonyls solvent includes esters and they are said to exhibit polar properties. These solvents are widely used in nail paint removers, electronic cleaners, circuit boards, decaffeination, glues, and also in food flavoring substances.
Properties of Organic Solvents
Organic solvents consist of different physical and chemical properties some of them are listed below
Organic Solvents are Volatile in Nature- Volatile solvents are solvents that have vaporizing abilities. Due to the volatile nature, a smell is released into the air due to organic solvents.
Organic Solvents Exhibit a Low Boiling Point- Organic solvents have very low boiling points. Since they have a low boiling point, they are highly volatile in nature.
Organic Solvents are Colorless Liquids- These solvents are colorless, transparent liquids that have lower molecular weights.
Applications of Organic Solvents
Organic solvents are highly useful in various fields. They are used in coatings, polishes, as a paint thinner and remover, as cleaning agents, as a nail polish remover such as acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, detergents, perfumes, spot removers, and also used in various chemical syntheses and processes, etc.