Forms of Water

Can you imagine your life without water? If your answer is no, then can you at least imagine a day without water? Still your answer is no!! yeah because as soon as you wake up you start using water. Water is one of our basic needs. It is a necessity for human survival and civilization. Human existence is possible on earth as it has a large amount of water. If you observe a globe, you will find a large area is blue in color which indicates the presence of water there. About 71% of earth’s surface is covered by water. Even 70% of our body is made up of water. These facts clearly describe the importance of water for the existence of ecosystems. Basically, water exists in three forms on earth and its atmosphere. Those three forms of water are as follows –

  • Water in Solid Form (Ice)

  • Water in Liquid Form (Rain)

  • Water in Vapor Form (Steam)


Water in Solid Form 

On earth water is found in solid form as ice caps, glaciers, snow etc. a very small quantity of water is present in the form of solid water on earth. Solid form of water accounts for only approximately 2% of total water. 


Glaciers contain almost 68% of fresh water which makes them the main source of usable water. Although most of the glacial lakes are in very inhospitable regions. 


Water in Liquid Form 

Large portion of total water on earth is present in liquid form. Oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, rain and groundwater are the main source of liquid form of water. Oceans contain 96.5% of the total liquid form of water. Water present in oceans and seas is very saline in nature. This is the reason it is not of much use for human beings. On an average 1kg of seawater contains 34 grams of salts. Different lakes, rivers contain fresh water which we can use for drinking purposes. Fresh water is very unevenly distributed on earth. Fresh water in liquid form is present 87% in lakes, 11% in swamps and only 2% in rivers. Out of these, river water is highly valuable for human beings. 


Water in Vapor Form 

Water is present in vapor form in very small quantities. Main sources of vapor form of water are vapor present in the atmosphere, clouds, soil moisture etc. water is present in vapor form mainly in the troposphere. The amount of vapor in air varies according to the temperature and density of the air. 


Thus, water is present in mainly three states – solid, liquid and gas or vapor. All different forms of water or types of water such as tap water, mineral water, spring water, well water etc. exist in either liquid, solid or gaseous form. 


Availability of water on Earth 

As we have discussed above water is present in its all three forms on earth in various sources. Distribution of water on earth can be easily explained -


Water Cycle 

Water cycle clearly explains the relation between all three forms of water and continuous movement of water on earth and its atmosphere. It is also known as hydrological cycle. Mass of total amount of water remains almost constant on earth although distribution of water in various sources of earth depends upon the climate of different regions of earth. 


Water present in oceans, seas, soil, rivers, lakes and plants evaporates by the heat of the sun. Due to lower temperature of the atmosphere of earth water vapor condenses and forms water droplets. These water droplets get combined due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules and become heavier. Due heavy water content in clouds precipitation occurs. Which results in rain or snow. Rainwater flows on earth and goes into seas, oceans, lakes, rivers, soil etc. Plants use water for photosynthesis and transpiration takes place in them. Ground water also gets replenished by rainwater. 


This was brief about different forms of water and their interconnection through the water cycle. If you want to know the chemical aspect of water and its different forms then register yourself on Vedantu or download Vedantu learning app for class 6-10, IIT JEE and NEET.