A carboxylic acid can be described as an organic acid containing a carboxyl group (C(=O)OH) attached to an R-group. The carboxylic acid's general formula can be given as R–COOH, where R refers to the alkyl group.
Also, the carboxylic acids occur widely. A few of the important examples are fatty acids and amino acids. The deprotonation of a carboxylic acid produces a carboxylate anion.
Industrially, several carboxylic acids are produced on a large scale.
They are found frequently in nature. Polyamides of amino carboxylic acids are the primary components of proteins, and the esters of Fatty acids are the primary components of lipids.
Carboxylic Acids - Acidity
The carboxylic acid can be described as an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (COOH), which is attached either to an aryl or alkyl group. They react with alkalis and metals to generate carboxylate ions. These carboxylic acid reactions indicate their acid nature.
Whereas, the acidity of carboxylic acids is higher when compared to the simple phenols because they react with weak bases such as bicarbonates and carbonates to liberate CO2 gas. The naming of Carboxylic Acid takes place when a substance donates a proton; in general, hydrogen to other things. Carboxylic acids are said to be acidic in nature due to the reason hydrogen belongs to the -COOH group.
2R - COOH + 2Na → 2R-COŌNa⁺ + H₂
R - COOH + NaOH → 2R-COŌNa⁺ + H₂O
R - COOH + NaHCO₃ → 2R-COŌNa⁺ + H₂o + CO₂
Acidity of Carboxylic Acids and Its Derivatives
Carboxylic acids can dissociate in water to produce hydronium and carboxylate ions. The carboxylate ion, which is formed, will stabilize through the resonance by an effective delocalization of the negative charge.
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Carboxylic acids are weaker compared to mineral acids, but they are strongest among the organic compounds. And, the acidity of a carboxylic acid is higher compared to alcohols and even phenols. Also, carboxylic acid is more acidic than phenols.
As discussed, carboxylate ion, which is the conjugate base of a carboxylic acid, is stabilized with the help of two equivalent resonance structures. At the same time, the negative charge is delocalized effectively between the two more electronegative oxygen atoms.
Besides, in the case of phenols, a negative charge is delocalized with less electronegative carbon atoms in phenoxide ion and less effective over one oxygen atom. Thus, the carboxylate ion exhibits higher stability than that of phenoxide ion.
Thus, carboxylic acids are more acidic than phenols. When carboxylic acids react with metals and the alkalis, they produce carboxylate ions, which only stabilize because of the resonance. A simple way to understand carboxyl groups is by understanding that electrons withdrawal leads to the carboxyl group's increased acidity, whereas an electron donation leads to the decrease of the carboxyl group's acidity.
The carboxylic acid's acidity further depends on the substituent aryl or alkyl group's nature, which is attached to the carboxyl group. An electron-withdrawing group ensures the effective negative charge delocalization via inductive or resonance effect. Therefore, the electron-withdrawing groups increase the stability of the conjugate base that is formed.
Whereas, the electron-donating groups destabilize the conjugate base that is formed and thus decrease the acidity of the carboxylic acid. The general trend of acidic strength of carboxylic acid or the order of acidity of carboxylic acids can be represented as follows.
CF₃COOH > CCl₃COOH > CHCl₂COOH >NO₂COOH > NC- CH₂COOH
We can also call it the order of acidic strength of carboxylic acids.
Because of the resonance effect, vinyl/phenyl groups increase the carboxylic acids’ acidity rather than decreasing the acidity because of the inductive effect.
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Nomenclature and Examples
Commonly, carboxylic acids are identified using their trivial names. They often contain the suffix -ic acid. There also exist the recommended IUPAC names; in this system, carboxylic acids contain an -oic acid suffix.
For example, the IUPAC name of the butyric acid (C3H7CO2H) is butanoic acid, according to the IUPAC guidelines. For the nomenclature of complex molecules that contains a carboxylic acid, carboxyl is the considered position as one of the parent chain even if there exist other substituents, like 3-chloro propanoic acid. In an alternate way, it is named either as a "carboxylic acid" or "carboxy" substituent on another parent structure, like 2-carboxy furan.
Usually, the carboxylate anion (RCO2− or R–COO−) of a carboxylic acid is named with a suffix -ate, with the normal pattern of -ic acid and -ate for the conjugate acid and the conjugate base of it, respectively. As an example, the conjugate base of acetic acid is given as acetate.
Carbonic acid, which takes place in bicarbonate buffer systems in nature, is not classed as one of the carboxylic acids generally, despite that it contains a moiety that is like a COOH group.
Applications of Carboxylic Acids
Carboxylic acids can be used in the production of pharmaceuticals, polymers, food additives, and solvents.
The important industrial carboxylic acids are given as follows.
Acrylic & methacrylic acids (precursors to adhesives, polymers),
Acetic acid (a component of vinegar, a precursor to coatings and solvents),
The citric acid (a preservative and flavor in food & beverages),
Adipic acid (polymers),
Maleic acid (polymers),
Fatty acids (coatings),
Terephthalic acid (polymers),
Propionic acid (food preservatives).