Amide Group

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Amide Functional Group

A compound with the general formula RC(=O)NR′R′′, where R, R', and R′′ represent organic groups or hydrogen atoms, is known as an amide, also known as an organic amide or a carboxamide in organic chemistry. When it appears in the main chain of a protein, the amide group is called a peptide bond, and when it occurs in a side chain, such as in the amino acids asparagine and glutamine, it is called an isopeptide bond. It can be thought of as a carboxylic acid derivative RC(=O)OH with the hydroxyl group –OH substituted by an amine group –NR′R′′, or as an acyl (alkanoyl) group RC(=O)– joined to an amine group. In this article, we will study amide functional group, amide general structure, functional groups amide and monocarboxylic acid amide in detail.

Primary, secondary, and tertiary amines are graded according to whether the amine subgroup has the form –NH2, –NHR, or –NRR', where R and R' are non-hydrogen groups Given below is the amide group structure for primary, secondary and tertiary amide.

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Common Amides

Amides can be found in both nature and technology. Proteins and essential plastics such as Nylons, Aramid, and Kevlar are polymers with amide groups (polyamides) linking their units; these linkages are easy to shape, provide structural rigidity, and resist hydrolysis. Many other essential biological molecules, as well as medications such as paracetamol, penicillin, and LSD, are amides. Solvents with low molecular weight, such as dimethylformamide, are commonly used.

Amide and Amine

The addition of a carbonyl group to an amine has two important effects on the nitrogen's properties.

For instance, amide nitrogen is much less basic than amine nitrogen. This is largely due to the delocalization of the nitrogen lone pair into the carbonyl's pi bond. Oxygen, not nitrogen, is the most fundamental position of an amide.

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Second, amide N–H bonds are slightly more acidic than amine N–H bonds. Because delocalization occurs. The conjugate base's lone pair can be delocalized by resonance to the attached carbonyl group. Acetamide has a pKa that is about 20 orders of magnitude higher than ammonia.

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Amide Solubility

The carbonyl (C=O) is a stronger dipole than the N–C dipole due to oxygen's higher 

electronegativity. Amides will behave as H-bond acceptors because they have a C=O dipole and, to a lesser degree, an N–C dipole. The presence of N–H dipoles in primary and secondary amides enables them to act as H-bond donors. As a result, amides can hydrogen bond with water and other protic solvents; the oxygen atom can accept hydrogen bonds from water, while the N–H hydrogen atoms can donate hydrogen bonds. As a result of interactions like these, amides have a higher water solubility than corresponding hydrocarbons. These hydrogen bonds play an important role in the secondary structure of the protein.

Synthesis of Amide

  1. Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution of Acyl Halides (or Anhydrides) With Amines

With amine nucleophiles, acyl groups attached to a good leaving group, such as acid chlorides or acid anhydrides, can easily undergo nucleophilic acyl substitution.

If only the carboxylic acid is available, converting it to an acid chloride with a reagent like a thionyl chloride (SOCl2) is a successful first step in converting a carboxylic acid to an amide.

Treating a carboxylic acid with an acyl halide, on the other hand, produces an anhydride, which is also useful.

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  1. Hydrolysis of Nitriles 

Nitriles are hydrolyzed to primary amides under acidic or basic conditions

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By reacting amines with a carboxylic acid in the presence of the dehydrating agent.

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Did You Know?

Amino acids are organic molecules that have three functional groups: an amine (–NH2), a carboxylic acid (–COOH), and a side chain (that is specific to each amino acid). Proteins are made up of the same 20 amino acids in most living organisms. The carboxylic acid group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of the other amino acid to create a peptide bond, which is a covalent bond formed when the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid reacts with the amine group of the other amino acid. A molecule of water is generated as a result of the forming of the bond (in general, reactions that result in the production of water when two other molecules combine are referred to as condensation reactions). A peptide bond is a type of amide bond. A peptide connection or peptide bond is the product of the carbonyl group carbon atom bonding with the amine nitrogen atom. More peptide bonds may form to other amino acids, expanding the structure, since each of the original amino acids has an unreacted group (one has an unreacted amine and the other has an unreacted carboxylic acid). A polypeptide is a sequence of associated amino acids. At least one long polypeptide chain can be found in a protein.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

Question: What is the difference between an Amide and an Amine?

In the field of organic chemistry, amines and amides are two types of compounds. The presence of a carbonyl group in the structure distinguishes amines from amides; amines have no carbonyl groups attached to the nitrogen atom, while amides have a carbonyl group attached to a nitrogen atom.

Question: Where are Amides found?

As carboxylic acids react with amines, amines form amides. Many useful synthetic polymers, such as nylon, contain an amide linkage. When amino acids react to form proteins, amides are formed.

Question: Is it Possible to Oxidize Amides?

In most cases, simple amides are made by reacting acids or acid halides with ammonia or amines. Amides are not easily oxidized or reduced, but in the presence of a catalyst, hydrogenation (the addition of hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures) can convert most carboxylic acid amides to amines.