According to Arrhenius, a substance can be said acid if they ionize or break-off in an aqueous solution to form hydrogen ions (H+ ions), this type of classification of acids can work for aqueous solutions. The limitation of this type of classification is that when both acids and bases react with each other then they will get neutralized as hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions react to produce water.
• Acids conduct electricity (i.e. they are electrolytes)
Strong acids completely dissociate ions in water while weak acids partly dissociate ions in water. Acids are divided into 2 types based on the ion dissociation in water, i.e. strong acids and weak acids as stated below:-
A base is a chemical species that donates electrons, accept protons or release hydroxide (OH-) ions in aqueous solutions. There are certain characteristics displayed by the base that can be used to identify them. You can identify base with the help of these given ways like they are slippery to touch (e.g. soap), bitter in taste, react with acid to form a salt and catalyze certain reactions. It includes Arrhenius base, Bronsted-Lowry base and Lewis base as types of bases. There are some examples of bases such as alkaline metal hydroxides, alkaline earth metal hydroxide, and soap.
|1. Arrhenius Definition||Acid is a kind of chemical compound that when dissolved in water gives a solution with H+ ion activity more than purified water.||A base is an aqueous substance that donates electrons, accept protons or release hydroxide (OH-) ions.|
|2. Bronstead Lowry Definition||An acid is a proton donor.||While a base is a proton acceptor.|
|3. Examples||Acetic acid (CH3COOH) and sulphuric acid are two examples of Acid.||Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Ammonia are two examples of Bases.|
|4. PH value||pH values of acid are less than 7.0.||On the other hand, the pH value of base is greater than 7.0.|
|5. Phenolphthalein||Acid remains colourless when dissolved.||Bases make the solution turn pink when dissolved.|
|6. Chemical formula||Acid starts with chemical formula H, for example, HCL (Hydrochloric Acid) but there is an exception of CH2COOH.||At the same time, base has a chemical formula OH at the end of it. For example- NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide).|
|7. Litmus paper||Acid turns blue litmus paper into red.||Base turns red litmus paper into blue.|
|8. Strength||Acid mainly depends on the concentration of the hydronium ions.||Similarly happens in a base.|
|9. Characteristics||Acid can be in the form of solid, liquid or gas form depending on the temperature.||Bases have a bitter taste having a bit slippery and solid appearance except ammonia which is present in the gaseous state|
|10. Dissociation||When acids dissolved in water, it release hydrogen ions (H+).||Base release hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water.|
|11. Examples||Examples of acids are acetic acid, sulphuric acid, etc.||Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide, ammonia, etc.|