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Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 9 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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Revision Notes for Class 11 Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 - Free PDF Download

Economics is a subject of understanding and planning various Financial activities. It is essential to learn and understand this topic in class 11th for students to build their career. Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes offered by Vedantu is a good way for the students to gain in-depth knowledge of both the environment and its sustainable development. These are available on the official website with a downloading option. Well-experienced subject experts prepare these notes with updated information.

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Access Class 11 Indian Economic Development Chapter 9 – Environment and Sustainable Development

What is the Environment?

The environment is the sum total of all the biotic elements like plants and animals and abiotic elements like the air, water, soil, and minerals that make up our surroundings and impact our existence and the quality of our life.

Functions of Environment

  • Offers Resources: The environment offers resources for production. It includes physical resources like minerals, wood, water, soil, and others which can be used as inputs for production. Normally, two types of resources are provided by the environment, namely:

    • Renewable Resources: Renewable resources are those that can be used indefinitely without getting depleted or exhausted. For example, air, sunlight etc.

    • Non- Renewable Resources: These are the resources that deplete over time as a result of extraction and use. For example, coal, fossil fuels etc.

  • Environment Sustains Life: It includes resources like sun, soil, water, and air which are essential for the sustenance of human life. The absence of these elements implies no existence of life.

  • Environment Assimilates Waste: Production and consumption generate waste that the environment absorbs.

  • Enhances the Quality of Life: The environment enhances the quality of life through its aesthetic and scenic beauty.

Carrying Capacity of the Environment: 

  • It refers to the situation where the exploitation of resources does not exceed the regeneration of resources and; the generation of wastes does not exceed the absorption capacity of the environment so that the environment is not polluted.

  • Environmental crises occur when the carrying capacity of the environment is exceeded through excessive exploitation of natural resources and/or through the excessive generation of wastes.

Absorptive Capacity:

The ability of the environment to absorb degradation and pollution is referred to as absorptive capacity.

Global Warming

Since the Industrial Revolution, the increase in greenhouse gases has resulted in a progressive rise in the average temperature of the earth's lower atmosphere.

Ozone Depletion

The phenomenon of ozone depletion refers to a decrease in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. High amounts of chlorine and bromine chemicals in the stratosphere contribute to ozone depletion. These chemicals are derived from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are utilised as cooling agents in air conditioners and refrigerators, as well as aerosol propellants.

State of India’s Environment

  • India is rich in natural resources and biodiversity. But, the development activities have led to increased pressure on limited natural resources. 

  • The major environment-related issues are 

  1. Land Degradation 

  2. Air Pollution 

  3. Biodiversity Loss 

  4. Management of Freshwater

  5. Solid Waste Management.

a. Land Degradation

It refers to the loss of fertility of the land which occurs due to the following reasons:

  • Loss of vegetation that occurs due to deforestation.

  • Excessive extraction of fuelwood and fodder.

  • The practice of shifting cultivation.

  • Forest land encroachment.

  • Forest fires and overgrazing.

  • Lack of implementation of soil conservation measures.

  • No or improper crop rotation.

  • Excessive use of agrochemicals like fertilizers and pesticides.

  • Inefficient planning and management of irrigation systems.

  • Excess extraction of groundwater.

b. Air Pollution

It occurs owing to the presence of pollutants in the air. These are contributed by:

  • Smoke is emitted by the industries, particularly those using coals as energy.

  • Poisonous gases emitted in the process of chemical treatment of materials.

  • The emission of gases by motor vehicles is assuming alarming proportions due to the exponential rise in the number of vehicles.

c. Biodiversity Loss

It refers to the decline, depletion or extinction of the living species of the world due to reasons such as, climatic change, pollution, over-exploitation of natural resources etc.

d. Management of Freshwater

Improper management of water resources, or water pollution is another issue the environment is facing. The water pollution is caused due to:

  • Industrial waste discharged in water resources that contaminates the water owing to toxic chemicals and pollutants.

  • Dumping household wastes in the water resources.

  • The use of chemicals and fertilizers by the farmers also adds to the water pollution, as when it rains, the chemicals get mixed up with the rainwater, which then flows to rivers etc.

  • Doing household chores like washing clothes, bathing etc also impacts the quality of water.

e. Solid Waste Management

Huge piles and dump of wastes in rural and urban areas leads to various diseases and health problems. Improper segregation of household waste, littering on the roads, etc pose a serious threat to the environment, hence there is an urgent need of management of solid waste. 

Sustainable Development

According to the UNCED, sustainable development is the ‘development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generation to meet their own needs’.

Strategies for Sustainable Development

  • Use of Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

The dependency on thermal and hydro energy has adverse effects on the environment. Thermal power plants release a lot of carbon dioxide into the environment and can also cause water pollution. Hydroelectric projects damage the forests and natural flow of water.  Sources like wind power and solar rays are better sources of energy for the environment.

  • LPG, Gobar Gas in Rural Areas

The use of wood, cow dung, or other biomass fuels encourages deforestation, reduction in green cover, wastage of cattle dung, and air pollution. Instead, the use of gobar gas and LPG is recommended. The cattle dung is used to produce gobar gas which is a cleaner fuel and the slurry is an excellent fertilizer. LPG, which is also a clean fuel, reduces household pollution considerably.

  • CNG in Urban Areas

The use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in public transport has significantly reduced air pollution.

  • Wind Power

In high wind areas, wind turbines are installed to move the wind to generate electricity without any adverse effect on the environment. Though the initial cost of setup is high, the benefits absorb the costs in the long run.

  • Solar Power through Photovoltaic Cells

India is endowed with abundant sunlight which is a rich source of energy. Solar energy and its conversion into electricity is an effective answer not only to the problem of economic growth but also the problem of sustainable development.

  • Mini-Hydel Plants

Streams in India can be used to generate energy by installing mini-hydel plants. These streams can move turbines which generate electricity. This power can be used to meet local requirements. They are eco–friendly and do not alter the land use pattern.

  • Traditional Knowledge and Practices

India is a country where people have been closely connected to their environment. All our traditional practices have been eco-friendly.  When we started to drift away from traditional systems and heritage, we caused damage to our environment. Adopting simple and traditional practices not only helps us lead a healthy life but also protects us from the side effects of modern products and services.

  • Biocomposting

Large-scale use of chemical fertilizers had adversely affected productive land and water bodies. Compost made from organic wastes of different types serve as excellent and eco-friendly fertilizers.

  • Bio Pest Control

Chemical pesticides showed negative effects on food products, soil, water bodies, and groundwater. Plant-based pesticides like neem trees are effective pest controlling agents. Awareness is also being spread about a variety of birds and animals that help in pest control.

  • Shift to Organic Farming

Shifting from conventional farming to organic farming also helps in sustaining the environment as through organic farming the nutrients of the are restored back, which is not the case in conventional farming.

Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 PDF

Chapter 9 of Class 11 Economics Notes is available on its official website of Vedantu in the form of a PDF. These are available to download for free of cost. It helps the students to learn at their feasible timings and allows them to clarify their doubts. These CBSE Class 11 Economics Indian economic development Notes Chapter 9 can either be used in a physical copy or soft copy. You can store them for future purposes to revise during the time of examinations.

Revision Notes For Class 11 Chapter 9 Environment and Sustainable Development 


At the beginning of the chapter, the Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes pdf has mentioned a few points about the Indian economy. Also, record the knowledge of earlier chapters that involve environmental issues. Now it is time to learn about the development of the Indian economy. It's important and strategies to maintain static development in the Indian economy. Also, it explains the functions and benefits of the development, which leads to the country's overall growth.

Environment - Definition and Functions

Before learning about the importance of Indian economic development, it is essential to know all about the environment and its functions. Many scholars here have given different definitions for the term environment. Usually, Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes pdf defined the environment as combining both biotic and abiotic elements. It is the total planetary inheritance and the summation of all resources available in the environment. 

The biotic elements include trees, animals, forests, birds, etc. Whereas the abiotic elements include air, land, rocks, mountains, etc. Coming to the functions of the environment, it has made four major functions. They are, 

  • It supplies resources.

  • It assimilates waste

  • It provides aesthetic services

  • It also provides genetic and biodiversity sustainment.

State of India's Environment

According to Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes pdf, the Indian environment is excellent and filled with plenty of resources. The atmosphere has a lot of water, air which contains several gases, etc. The soil contains several minerals, like zinc, coal, etc. It is good at natural vegetation, food production along with the cattle and wildlife. But day by day the degradation starts and also increases drastically. The affecting factors are- 

  • There is a great loss of vegetation due to deforestation

  • Unsustainable fuel and fodder extraction.

  • Encroachment into Forest lands and building several constructions.

  • Shifting cultivation, forest fires, etc

  • Improper planning and management of irrigation projects. etc.

Sustainable Development

Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes pdf explains the importance of sustainable development for the environment. Because it relates to the adverse effects on younger generations. As the resources are going down, the demand will become high, and starvation can occur for humankind and other living things. Several environmentalists argued to maintain the development for the environment and need to take for the gradual growth. The primary things to be initiated are,

  • Conservation of natural resources

  • Preservation of regenerative capacity.

Strategies for Sustainable Development

As part of Indian economic development, it is important to take several preventive measures and implement certain strategies to sustain the environment's sustainable development. Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes pdf specifies various strategies as follows. 

  • Usage of non-conventional sources of energy.

  • Providing LPG and gobar gas in rural areas.

  • Compressor natural gas in the urban areas.

  • Maintaining proper wind power

  • Solar-powered through photovoltaic cells.

  • Approaching traditional practices and methods.

  • Biocomposting, hydel plants, etc.

  • Controlling bio pests is also important.


Hence, the only moment is a combination of different elements that provide various resources to living things and non-reliving things. Preserving these resources is the responsibility of human beings. The increase in population, the evolution of industries, an increase in pollution, etc., leads to deforestation and the Indian economy's degradation. This has to be changed and needs to implement several strategies and measures to develop the environment and protect the environment for future generations and the government.

Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11  pdf have explained various functions, benefits of the environment in your detailed way.

FAQs on Environment and Sustainable Development Class 11 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 9 (Free PDF Download)

1. How can we conserve the environment using hydel plants?

These hydro plants can be introduced mostly in the mountain areas. Because we have several streams that may come across, and these streams can transfer into small turbines. These turbines can convert the streams into mechanical energy. This energy helps to generate electricity which can be used in the local areas without destroying the soil. It helps to conserve the environment as it is entirely environment-friendly. 

2. What are the preventive measures stated by Herman Daly?

As Herman dolly is a great economist, he always strives to grow and develop the economy and environment. That's why he suggested a few pointers for the growth of the environment after a lot of research. They are- 

  • Controlling the population to some extent.

  • Restricted technological development without consuming and destroying natural resources.

  • Enrichment of awareness regarding the renewable resources and optimum utilization of these resources in a proper way.

  • Should keep a limit of utilizing non-renewable resources to some extent.

  • Pollution and pollutants should be eradicated from the roots themselves. 

  • The persons who disobey the rules but also need to be punished strictly.

3. What is the name of the board that encouraged the sustainable development of the environment?

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development board has emphasized the concept of sustainable development of the environment. They believe that it helps to increase the level of the Indian economy.