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Question:

How many neutrons and protons are there in the following nuclei?

$\mathrm{^{13}_{6}C}, \mathrm{^{16}_{8}O}, \mathrm{^{24}_{12}Mg}, \mathrm{^{56}_{26}Fe}, \mathrm{^{88}_{38}Sr}$

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Last updated date: 18th Jun 2024
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Answer
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Hint: To determine the number of neutrons and protons in a nucleus, you need to understand the structure of atomic nuclei and how they are represented using the notation A (mass number) and Z (atomic number). The atomic number (Z) represents the number of protons, and the mass number (A) represents the total number of protons and neutrons.


Step-by-Step Solution:

Let's break down the information for each nucleus:


Carbon:

Mass number (A) = 13

Atomic number (Z) = 6 (for carbon)

Atomic number = Number of protons = 6

To find the number of neutrons, subtract Z from A:

Number of neutrons = (Atomic mass) – (Atomic number)

Number of neutrons = A - Z = 13 - 6 = 7


Oxygen:

Mass number (A) = 16

Atomic number (Z) = 8 (for oxygen)

Atomic number = Number of protons = 8

Number of neutrons = A - Z = 16 - 8 = 8


Magnesium:

Mass number (A) = 24

Atomic number (Z) = 12 (for magnesium)

Atomic number = Number of protons = 12

Number of neutrons = A - Z = 24 - 12 = 12


Iron:

Mass number (A) = 56

Atomic number (Z) = 26 (for iron)

Atomic number = Number of protons = 26

Number of neutrons = A - Z = 56 - 26 = 30

Strontium:

Mass number (A) = 88

Atomic number (Z) = 38 (for strontium)

Atomic number = Number of protons = 38

Number of neutrons = A - Z = 88 - 38 = 50


Answer:

Here are the numbers of neutrons and protons for each nucleus:

Carbon: 7 neutrons, 6 protons

Oxygen: 8 neutrons, 8 protons

Magnesium: 12 neutrons, 12 protons

Iron: 30 neutrons, 26 protons

Strontium: 50 neutrons, 38 protons


Note: Understanding the composition of atomic nuclei is fundamental in nuclear physics and chemistry. The number of protons in the nucleus determines the element, and the number of neutrons affects the stability and isotopic variations of an element. The notation A (mass number) and Z (atomic number) are widely used to describe nuclear compositions.

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