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Unit of Magnetic Field

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Last updated date: 19th May 2024
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Unit of Magnetic Field Introduction

Magnetic Field is the area that surrounds a magnet. It puts forth a magnetic force because of the moving electric charges. Specifically, moving charges or magnetic material surround the magnetic field region within which a magnetism acting force can be observed.


The symbol to represent the magnetic field is "B" or "H".


If we take a look at a magnet and consider a magnetic field around it, we can conduct an experiment where we can make small pieces attract to the magnet, even if they are kept at a distance apart.


This tells us that just like the gravitational and electrical force, magnetic force also acts at a certain distance. The primary idea behind the force acting from a certain distance is something we can understand really well by understanding the term magnetic field. The magnet attracts the small pieces or iron and gives rise to the magnetic field in that area or the region surrounding it.


Every person all over the world is familiar with a magnet, but the process behind the working of that magnet and the phenomenon of magnetism is also something we all should understand.


Application and Observations

One way to describe the magnetic field surrounding a magnet is to draw the magnetic lines of force around its region. We often define these lines as imaginary. It will be a great help to attract and assume the path they will travel.


For example, the magnetic lines of force on planet earth start at the North Pole and end at the South Pole. In the figure below, we can observe that the magnetic field lines are diverging at the North Pole and converging at the South Pole.



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Another concept which deserves an ample amount of attention is how these magnetic field lines originate whenever the electric charge is in motion. It is quite evident that if we apply electric charges in motion, the magnetic field's strength will also consequently increase.


It is also vital to note that topics of magnetic field and the concepts of magnetism are a critical part of the electromagnetic force, which is a physical interaction between the particles that have been charged electrically.


SI Unit of Magnetic Field

The magnetic field can be measured in various ways; it is of two types, B-field and H-field magnetic waves.

  • B-field, commonly referred to as B is the magnetic field which refers to the force it puts forth on a moving charged particle.

  • On the other hand, M-field, known as M has quite a few similarities to B but it is defined inside the material.


There are different days of measuring them. B is measured in Tesla and  represented  by the symbol T.


H is measured in Amperes per Meter and is represented by (A/m).


Lorentz Force Law states that if F(Magnetic) = qvB, and q = electric charge, v = velocity, with B = magnetic field. Hence, we can conclude that a particle that carries a charge of 1 coulomb, and moves at 90 degrees (in a perpendicular motion) by a magnetic field of 1 Tesla, and with a speed of 1 meter/second, will experience a force of magnitude with 1 Newton.


Tesla (T) can also be defined as:


\[T=\frac{V.s}{m^{2}}=\frac{N}{A.m}=\frac{J}{A.m^{2}}=\frac{H.A}{m^{2}}=\frac{Wb}{m^{2}}=\frac{Kg}{C.s}=\frac{N.s}{C.m}=\frac{Kg}{A.s^{2}}\], 


This is where, V = volt, s = second, m = meter, N = newton, A = ampere, J = joule, H = henry, Wb = weber, Kg = kilogram, and C = coulomb.


Other well-known units or magnetic field are:

  • Gauss: In a CGS system, a minor unit of magnetic field is measured in Gauss, which we can  represent by the symbol G.


1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss


  • Oersted: Whereas the H-field is sometimes measured in Oersted,  represented  by the symbol Oe, when observed in the CGS system.


One is equivalent to 1 dyne per maxwell.


More About the Topic

Just like how the electric field surrounds the electric charge, the magnetic field refers to the area surrounding a magnet, which exerts a magnetic force due to the moving electric charges. To be specific, the magnetic field is the region surrounded by the moving charges or magnetic material within which there is a force of magnetism acting. The magnetic field lines represent the magnetic field. The symbol for denoting the magnetic field is "B" or "H."


Let us have a better understanding of this concept by considering a magnetic field surrounding a magnet.  We already know the fact that a magnet attracts small pieces of iron even where they are kept at a distance apart. Therefore, just like the gravitational and electric force, the magnetic force also acts at a distance. The concept behind the force acting at a certain distance can be well-explained by understanding the term magnetic field. The magnet attracting the small pieces of iron gives rise to the magnetic field in the area or region surrounding it.


Almost every other individual across the globe is familiar with magnetic objects and has experienced that there is indeed some force acting between them. The concept of magnetic field mediates the phenomenon of magnetism. The force that one magnet exerts on some other magnet can be well-described as the interaction between one magnet with the magnetic field of the other magnet. For describing the magnetic field around a magnet, the convenient way is to draw the magnetic field lines or magnetic lines of force around its region. They are defined as the imaginary lines, which represent the direction of the magnetic field such that the tangent at any point is in the direction of the field vector at that particular point. The magnetic lines of force start at the North Pole and end at the South Pole. In the figure given below, we can observe that the magnetic field lines are diverging from the North Pole and converging at the South Pole.


Another concept that deserves adequate attention is how the magnetic field lines occur. Well, the answer is that the magnetic field lines occur whenever the electric charge is in motion. Hence, it is quite evident that if we apply more electric charges in the motion, then the strength of the magnetic field shall consequently increase. Additionally, it is essential to keep in mind that the concepts of magnetism and magnetic field are an integral part of the electromagnetic force, which is a kind of physical interaction occurring between the electrically charged particles.


SI Unit of Magnetic Field

We can define the magnetic field in many ways corresponding to the effect it has on our surroundings or environment as a result of which, we have the B-field and the H-field (magnetic field denoted by symbol B or H). B-field is a kind of magnetic field, which refers to the force it exerts on a moving charged particle. H-field is similar to B-field except for the fact that it is defined inside a material. However, there are different ways of measuring them. In the SI system, B is measured in Tesla, denoted by the symbol T and H is measured in Amperes per Meter, denoted as (A/m). A flux density of one Weber per square meter or Wb/m2 is one Tesla, where Weber (Wb) = SI unit of Magnetic flux (number of magnetic field lines passing through a given closed surface).


According to Lorentz Force Law, F(Magnetic) = qvB, where q = electric charge, v = velocity, and B = magnetic field. So, we can say that a particle carrying a charge of 1 coulomb, moving at 90 degrees (perpendicularly) through a magnetic field of 1 Tesla, and at a speed of 1 meter per second, experiences a force of magnitude 1 Newton.


We can also define Tesla (T) as:

\[T=\frac{V.s}{m^{2}}=\frac{N}{A.m}=\frac{J}{A.m^{2}}=\frac{H.A}{m^{2}}=\frac{Wb}{m^{2}}=\frac{Kg}{C.s}=\frac{N.s}{C.m}=\frac{Kg}{A.s^{2}}\], where V = volt, s = second, m = meter, N = newton, A = ampere, J = joule, H = henry, Wb = weber, Kg = kilogram, and C = coulomb.


Other Common Units of  Magnetic  Field

In the CGS system, a smaller unit of the magnetic field (B-field) is Gauss, denoted by the symbol G. The relation between Tesla and Gauss is given as 1 T = 10,000G. Furthermore, the H-field in the CGS system is measured with the help of Oersted (Oe), which is equivalent to 1 dyne per maxwell.


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FAQs on Unit of Magnetic Field

1. What are magnetic fields?

A vector of the magnetic influence that occurs over the moving electric charges, electric currents, and magnetic materials is called a magnetic field.


The moving charge in a magnetic field experiences a perpendicular force to the velocity of its own and also to the magnetic field.


We can visualize the magnetic field by creating a Vector Field Plot around a bar of magnet, but an alternative and more common way is to draw Field Lines around the magnet and create smooth lines instead of using a grid pattern.

2. Do magnetic field lines have any characteristics?

The characteristics of magnetic field lines are as follows:

  • They never cross each other.

  • Their density contributes to the intensity of the magnetic field they represent in space and time.

  • These lines are always continuous and close to each other.

  • A tangent represents them to the field lines in that space.

  • They tend to contract diagonally but expand laterally.

  • If these magnetic lines are of force, they are crowded near the poles and far from each other at the center of that said magnet.

3. Can we create Magnetic Waves?

Simple and Larger Cycloalkanes are highly stable and very similar to alkanes; their reactions, like the radical chain reactions, are also very similar to alkane reactions. Due to the Baeyer Strain and the Ring Strain, smaller cycloalkanes like cyclopropane have a lower stability.


But they react in a similar way as alkenes, only thing is that instead of an electrophilic addition, they react in a nucleophilic aliphatic substitution.


Some examples of these reactions would be the ring-opening or ring-cleavage reactions of the alkyl cycloalkanes.

4. Can magnets work in outer space?

Yes, electromagnets are the magnets that need electricity to work but still work if we run enough electric current through a magnet in space.


Magnets are being theorized to be used in space for generating more fuels for larger space exploration possibilities.


In the present time we use magnets in the different rovers like the Mars Rovers so that it can collect the dust from the land of mars. By studying this dust, we may be able to learn more about the geology and composition of mars' surface and minerals.

5. What is the right-hand-grip-rule?

Because the magnetic field is a vector term, we also need information about its direction to know its value. To know this direction of the conventional current and where it is flowing, we can use the right-hand-grip-rule.


To use this technique we have to imagine our right hand around a wire with our thumb and point it in the direction of the given current. 


The fingers will show us the direction of the electromagnetic field which is wrapping around this wire.