We have all played with magnets when we were young and even we remember it as well. Some of us even play with them now But what makes them ‘magnetic’? Have we ever thought why don’t all the materials and substances possess a magnetic field? Have we ever just wondered about it? In this chapter we are going to cover the topics which are of magnetization and magnetic intensity.
As we know that the magnetization generally results from a moment which is said to be the magnetic moment. The motion which is of electrons that is in the atoms is what induces this. The net magnetization which we already know as a result from the response that is of a material to the external magnetic field. We can also recall here that it also takes into consideration any unbalanced which is of the magnetic dipole moment that is inherent in the material due to the motion of its electrons as we have mentioned earlier.
Magnetization is a term which is also termed as magnetic polarization which is said to be a vector quantity that gives the measure of the density of permanent or we can say induced dipole moment in a given magnetic material. As we all already know that magnetization generally results from the magnetic moment that is which results from the motion of electrons in the atoms or we can say that the spin of nuclei or the electrons. The net magnetization generally is said to result from the response of a material to the external magnetic field that is together with any unbalanced magnetic dipole moment that usually is inherent in the material due to the motion which is in its electrons as mentioned earlier. The concept that is of magnetization generally helps us in classifying the materials on the basis of their magnetic property. In this section we are going to learn more about magnetization and the concept which is of magnetic intensity.
The Measurements which are of magnetic properties which have been used to characterize a wide range of systems from oxygen and metallic alloys and the solid state materials as well as the coordination complexes containing metals. Most organic and main groups are elements that are compounds which have all the electrons that are paired and these are said to be the diamagnetic molecules with very small magnetic moments. All of the metals that are transitioned have at least one state which is of oxidation with an incomplete d subshell.
The measurement which is of Magnetic that is particularly for the first row transition elements which give the information about the number of unpaired electrons. That is the number of electrons which are unpaired that generally provides information about the oxidation state and along with that the electron configuration as well. The determination that is of the magnetic properties which is of the second and third row elements or the transition elements is more complex. The magnetic moment which we till now already know is calculated from the magnetic susceptibility that is since the magnetic moment is not measured directly we do it this way. There are several ways that are to express the degree to which a material acquires a magnetic moment which is in a field.
The Magnetic behaviour that is of a magnet is said to be characterized by the alignment of the atoms which are inside a substance. When a substance which is ferromagnetic is brought under the application that is of a strong external magnetic field which is then they experience a torque that is wherein the substance which aligns themselves in the direction of the magnetic field applied and hence gets strongly magnetized in the direction of the field or we can say the magnetic field.
All the substances which we have seen possess magnetic properties and the most general definition that is of magnetism defines it as a particular form which is of interactions originating which is in between moving electrically charged particles.
The Magnetic interaction relates spatially separate objects material and it is transmitted by means of fields which are magnetic about which we have already studied .This magnetic field which we know is important characteristics of EM form of matter.
We already know that the source which is of the magnetic field is a moving electric charge that is an electric current. On the scale of an atom there are two types of macroscopic current which are associated with electrons.
(a) the current which is orbital is which the electron in an atom moves about the nucleus that is in closed paths which is constituting electric currents loops
(b) the current which generally spin relates to the internal degrees of freedom of the motion of electrons and this can only be understood through quantum mechanics.
The electrons which are Like electrons in an atom and their atomic nucleus may also have magnetic properties like magnetic moment but we note that it is fairly smaller than that of electrons then only.
The moment which is of Magnet denoted by m is nothing but the quantitative measure of the magnetism of a particle.
For an elementary loop which is closed with a current denoted by i in it and the magnitude denoted by modulus |m| of a magnetic moment vector equals the current times the loop area S that is we can say that
|m|=iS and direction of m can be determined using right hand rule.
All the micro structural which is of the elements of matter electrons and the protons and neutrons are elementary which generally carriers of magnetic moment and combination of these can be principal sources of magnetism
Thus we can say that the magnetic properties are inherent to all the substances that is they are all magnets
1. Explain what the formula of magnetic intensity is?
The strength which is of the magnetic field at a point can be given in terms of vector quantity known as the magnetic intensity denoted as H. Whereas letter H = nI. The Unit that is of magnetic intensity is A/m and its dimensions are [L-1M0T0I1].
2. Explain what is the intensity of magnetism?
The Intensity which is of magnetism is said to be defined as the magnetic moment that is per unit volume of the magnetized material, so we can pen it down as I=M/V. where letter M is the total magnetic moment that is within volume due to the magnetizing field.
3. Explain what is magnetic intensity class 12?
The Magnetic Intensity Definition is The degree to which a field or we can say the magnetic field can magnetise a substance or the capability of an external magnetic field to magnetise the substance is known as a magnetic intensity. The magnetic field that is generally produced by the external source of current is known as the magnetising field.
4. Explain what is the flux density formula?
The density which is of Flux is simply the total flux divided by the cross sectional area that is of the part through which it flows - B = Φ / Ae teslas. Thus it is said to be 1 weber per square metre = 1 tesla. The density of Flux density is related to field strength via the permeability. That is denoted by B = μ × H.