Electric Motor

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Introduction to Electric Motor

In the early 1800s, Micheal Faraday was bringing out the aspects and utilization of electricity

The electric motor, in general, is well known as a motor, is one of the biggest advancements witnessed in the scientific field. The life we are leading today is because of the invention of the motors, or else we would be using electricity just to glow the bulb. The electrical motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In simple terms, the electrical motor is a device used for producing rotational energy.


Explain the Working of Electric Motor

The electric motor works on the principle that when a coil is placed in the magnetic field and the current passes through it resulting in rotation of the coil. 


Working of the Electric Motor

Now let us start with the working of the electric motor. The schematic representation of the electric motor is as shown below.

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Before we understand how it works let’s have a look at the parts of the electric motor. The basic design of the electric motor consists of a rectangular wire, two strong magnets, and a battery. If we are asked what are the two main components of an electric motor then the answer would be the magnets to produce the magnetic field and the coil to exhibit the effect of the magnetic field.


Parts of the Electric Motor

  • A rectangular coil ABCD.

  • Two strong magnets, that can be of any type either it is a horseshoe magnet or the bar magnets. They are used to provide a strong magnetic field.

  • Split rings are used to rotate the rectangular coil.

  • The brushes are used as the contact between the split rings.


Working

  • Now, when the electric current is passed through the rectangular coil ABCD. We notice that the current between BC and AD arm are parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the current between AB and CD is perpendicular to the magnetic field. Therefore the magnetic field will only act upon the AB and CD arms. 

  • From Fleming’s left-hand rule, in the AB arm, the direction of force is downwards and the magnetic field is from north to south. Similarly, in the CD arm, the direction of force is upward.

  • Therefore, the forces in the AB and CD arm are in opposite directions, this will result in the rotation of the rectangular coil ABCD.

  • After half rotation, the ring Q will come in contact with the brush X and ring P in contact with the Y, this will lead to a change in direction of the current. 

  • Since the direction of the current is changed, the direction of forces in the arm AB and CD will also change, hence the coil continues to rotate in the same direction.

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After studying about the motors the usual question arises is what are the uses of electric motors. Electric motors are used widely in most of the appliances such as they are used in fans, mixers, etc.


Uses of Electric Motors

  • They are used in electric fans.

  • They are used in washing machines.

  • Used in water pumps.


Did You Know?

The electric generators are the equipment that works in the opposite way. Electric generators produce electricity by rotation.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Who discovered the electric motor?

Electric motors were first invented by Micheal Faraday.

2. What are the different types of electric motors?

The electric motors are classified into two types, AC motors, and DC motors.