What is Fibre Optic Cable?

Fibre optic cables are mainly used to transmit information over long distances with minimum loss. The information through optical fibres is transmitted in the form of light pulses. The core of the optical fibres is made of glass or plastic. The fibre optic networks mainly work on the principle of total internal reflection. Here, the incident angle should be more than the critical angle. The diameter of the optical fibre is equal to the human hair.  The fibre optic cables can transmit information faster than traditional electric cables. This article describes the meaning and definition of fibre optics,  parts of optical fibre, types, classification and applications of fibre-optic internet, phone and TV services in detail. 


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Parts of Fibre Optic Cables 

The fibre optic cables are mainly made of four parts, they are listed below. 

  1. Core

  2. Cladding

  3. Buffer

  4. Jacket

Core: The core is the inner part of the optical fibre. It is the medium, which allows the light to pass through it. The core region has the highest refractive index in the optical fibre. The core is made up of Glass or Plastic.

Cladding: Cladding is the substance that is covered over the core of the optical fibre.  It has a lower refractive index while compared to the core of the fibre. The cladding of the Optical fibre is made up of Glass / Plastic.

Buffer: The Buffer is the moisture substance that is coated over the surface of the cladding. They are mainly used to provide flexibility to the optical fibre’s core and cladding.  

Jacket: The jacket is the outer surface of the optical fibre. They act as a shield for protecting the inner part of the fibre. 


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Types of Fibre Optic 

The optical fibre cables are classified based on various factors like the refractive index, materials used, and mode of propagation of light.


Types of Optic Fibre Based on Refractive Index

Step Index Fiber: The index of refraction will sharply decrease from the core to cladding. 

Graded Index Fiber: The Index of refraction will be maximum at the centre of the core and radically decreases from core to cladding.


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Types of Optic Fibre Based Based on Core Material 

Glass Fiber: The core and cladding of the optical fibre are made of glasses.

Plastic Fiber: The Core and cladding of the optical fibre is made of plastic.

  

Classification Based on Mode of Propagation

Single Mode Fiber:  The core diameter of the single-mode fibre is small. The light wave can travel a longer distance with smaller refraction.

Multimode Fiber:  The core diameter for multimode fibre is large. The loss during the light travel through its core is high. Also, It is preferable to transfer for a short distance.


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Based on Mode of Propagation and Refractive Index   

  • The optical fibres are classified into four types based on their mode of propagation and refractive index. They are listed below. 

  • Step index-single mode fibres

  • Graded index-Single mode fibres

  • Step index-Multimode fibres

  • Graded index-Multimode fibres


Fibre Optic Cable Short Note

Various types of fibre optic cables are mainly utilized to provide internet connectivity to the home or offices. Here, the optic cable running from the network hub reaches near the home or straight to home for internet connectivity.  In the optical fibre network,  Fiber to the Home (FTTH) or Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) is the fastest type of network. It can provide a direct connection to houses, apartments, and businesses.  

Fibre to the Curb (FTTC) is another type of fibre optic network, which provide a partial connection. Here, the optical cables reach the crub near the home or businesses place and the copper cables will carry the signals from the crub to the rest of the way.  

Fibre to the Building (FTTB) is also a type of fibre optic network, which distributes the signal for the offices and homes located in a particular location.

 

Facts and Advantage Of Fibre Optic Cable 

  1. The optical fibre will allow larger bandwidth. While the copper wire does not allow such a great bandwidth, 

  2. The data can be transmitted through a long distance with the help of Optical fibre. This can be used for undersea transmission. 

  3. The Optical fibre can transfer data at high speed while compared to copper cable. The optical fibre will transfer data just 31% less than the speed of light.  

  4. Usually, optical fibres are immune to external weather, temperature..etc Unlike copper wire, optical fibre will not be affected by electromagnetic induction. 

  5. Since the optical fibre is flexible, the maintenance charge is less while compared to copper wires. Also, Optical fibre is less prone to damage and breakage. 

  6. The maintenance cost for the optical fibre is less while compared to the copper wire, even the initial installation cost for optical fibre is high. 

  7. The optical fibres are thin and non-flammable. So, it is not sensitive to the external surface. 

  8. The power required to transfer information through the optical fibre is less, while compared to other traditional methods. 

  9. The data from optical fibre are secure, and it cannot be decoded for hacking. 

  10.  It is possible to avoid losses like heat loss, eddy current loss...etc while using optical fibre for transmission. 

This article described the meaning and definition of fibre optics with the types of fibre optics, parts of optical fibre and their advantages in detail. 

FAQs on Fibre Optics

Q1. How does fibre connect to my house?

Answer: The property of the fibre cables are the same as the telephone line. The fibre optic cable can be connected to a modem for signal. Usually, fibre optic cables are used for providing connections to the cabinet. Further, the copper wire was connected with the cabinet for providing a connection to the home or business.    

Q2. How does Fibre optic work?

Answer: The light travelling inside the fibre optic cable works on the principle of total internal reflection. Here, the light bounce of repeatedly by falling on the walls of the cable.  Each photon of light bounce down and continued the internal mirror reflection. Usually, the light beam travels through the core of the cable. 

Q3. What is fibre optic cable?

Answer: The fibre optic cable is a network cable, which has glass fibres inside the insulated casing. They are mainly used for long-distance communication with high-performance data networking, and telecommunications. The bandwidth and transmission rate provided by the fibre optic cables are higher than the wired cables. 

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