Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon

Cross Section

Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
Total views: 329.1k
Views today: 4.29k
hightlight icon
highlight icon
highlight icon
share icon
copy icon

Cross Section Meaning

The cross section in physics, when a radiant excitation (e.g., a sound wave, a particle beam, light, or an X-ray) intersects a localised phenomenon, is a measure of the probability that a particular process will occur (e.g. particle or density fluctuation). For example, the Rutherford cross section in physics is a calculation of the likelihood that an alpha particle will be deflected by a certain angle after a collision with an atomic nucleus. In physics, the cross section is usually denoted by σ (sigma) and is measured in transverse area units. In addition, it can be thought of as the size of the object that the excitation must hit in order for the process to occur, but more exactly, it is a parameter of a stochastic process.

[Image will be uploaded soon]

The cross section meaning in physics, this likelihood also converges to a deterministic proportion of the excitation energy involved in the process, such that when light scatters off of a cross section particle physics, the cross section determines the sum of optical force scattered from the light of a certain irradiance. It's worth noting that, while the cross section and area have the same units, the cross section does not always equate to the target's real spatial scale as determined by other methods. It's not unusual for a scattering object's actual cross-sectional area physics to be much greater or smaller than the cross section relative to any physical phase.

In classical physics, the reciprocal cross section of two discrete particles is the field transverse to their relative motion within which they must intersect in order to scatter from each other hence the particle is called a particle physics cross section.

For example, plasmonic nanoparticles may have far greater light scattering cross section for specific frequencies than there is a real cross sectional area in physics.

The reciprocal cross section in physics of two discrete particles is the field transverse to their relative motion within which they must intersect in order to scatter from each other.

The scattering cross section of hard inelastic spheres that connect only as they come into contact is proportional to their geometric dimension.

[Image will be uploaded soon]

A differential cross section is one that is defined as the differential limit of a function of any final-state variable, such as particle angle or energy. A total cross section, also known as an optimised total cross section, is a cross section that is integrated over all scattering angles (and presumably other variables).

For example, the intensity scattered at forward and backward angles is greater than the intensity scattered horizontally in Rayleigh scattering, so the forward differential scattering cross section is greater than the perpendicular differential cross section, and the complete cross section can be found by combining all of the infinitesimal cross sections over the whole spectrum of angles using integral calculus.

In nuclear, chemical, and particle physics, differential and absolute scattering cross sections are among the most important observable quantities.

Cross Sectional Area Physics

The area of a two-dimensional shape obtained when a three-dimensional object - such as a cube - is cut perpendicular to any given axis at a point is known as the cross sectional area in physics.

[Image will be uploaded soon]

A cylinder's cross-section, for example, is a circle cut parallel to its centre. 

Cross sectional area physics formula is derived as, 



Π (pi) is a constant value is 3.14

R is a radius of a circle.

In cross sectional area formula physics radius is squared which means multiplied by itself.

Cross Section Nuclear Physics

The cross section nuclear physics, the nucleus is a term used to explain the likelihood of a nuclear reaction occurring. The theory of a nuclear cross section physics can be quantified physically in terms of characteristic area where a larger area means a larger probability of interaction. The standard unit for measuring a nuclear cross section nuclear physics is denoted as σ is the barn, which is equal to 10−28 m² or 10−24 cm². Cross section can be evaluated for all potential interaction processes at once, in which case they are referred to as complete cross section, or for individual processes, such as elastic and inelastic scattering of the latter, absorption cross section are of special concern among neutron cross sections.

[Image will be uploaded soon]

In cross section nuclear physics, impinging particles are usually treated as point particles with a small diameter. Cross section can be calculated for any kind of operation, including capture scattering, neutron generation, and so on. In certain cases, the number of particles released or dispersed in nuclear reactions is not specifically determined; instead, the attenuation caused by the interposition of a known thickness of a given substance in a parallel beam of incident particles is measured. The cumulative cross section obtained in this manner is known as the total cross section and it is normally denoted by σ  or σT.

Scattering Cross Section

Scattering cross section in nuclear physics, a change in a particle's direction of motion caused by a collision with another particle. A collision can occur between particles that repel one another, such as two positive (or negative) ions, and does not have to require direct physical interaction between the particles, as described by physics. Experiments with subatomic particles show that the electric repulsive force between them obeys Coulomb's theorem, which says that the force varies as the inverse square of the distance between the particles, i.e. the force quadruples when the distance is halved.

[Image will be uploaded soon]

FAQs on Cross Section

1. What Is an Area of Cross Section in Electricity?

Answer: A plane created by cutting through something at right angles to its length is referred to as a cross section. A circular plate can be seen if you break a wire and look at it straight on. This cross section's area is referred to as the cross section area. 

2. What is an Area of Cross Section in Physics For Class 10?

Answer: The cross section is known in geometry as the form obtained by intersecting a solid with a plane. A two-dimensional geometric form is the cross-section of a three-dimensional shape. In other words, a cross-section is a form obtained by removing a solid parallel to the base. A region is projected onto the plane as a plane slices a solid material. The plane becomes perpendicular to the symmetry axis. The cross-sectional area is the projection of the cross-sectional area. 

Example: Determine the cross-sectional area of a plane perpendicular to the base of a 27-cm3 cube.

3. What is an Example of a Cross Section?

Answer: The following are some examples of cross-sections with various shapes:

A circle is every cross-section of the sphere. A triangle is the vertical cross-section of a cone, and a circle is a horizontal cross-section. A cylinder's vertical cross-section is a square, while its horizontal cross-section is a circle.

4. What are the 3 Types of Nuclear Reactions?

Answer: Nuclear Reactions are as follows,

  1. Fission.

  2. Fusion.

  3. Nuclear Decay.

Students Also Read