Acids and Bases

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What are Acids and Bases

NEET examinations will have questions from the chemistry chapter- Acids and Bases. Chemistry being the scoring subject, students may have an opportunity to score higher marks with a good understanding of the chapters. It is observed from the previous years’ trends in NEET exams in the chemistry section that students are assessed on a similar type of questions with varying levels of complexity. Therefore, it is of great importance to understand the topics well that are included in the NEET chemistry syllabus 2021. We will understand and practice the topic of Acids and Bases in this article.

 

So, let’s begin by studying more about Acids and Bases.

 

Acids and Bases

The matter is anything that occupies space by having a volume. So, in chemistry, acids and bases are a way how matter is classified. An acid is a solution of H+ ions and is also a solution that donates hydrogen ions. It is sour in taste. At the same time, the base is a solution of -OH ions that accept hydrogen ions. Therefore, when a base is dissolved in water, it increases the concentration of hydroxide ions of the solution. It absorbs H+ ions which depletes the solutions of free H+ ions making it less acidic. A strong is characterized by the property to easily and completely dissociate hydrogen ions from its conjugate base.

 

About Acids and Bases

Acid and base have been defined in different ways, depending on the particular way of looking at the properties of acidity and basicity. An acid is any hydrogen-containing substance that is capable of donating a proton (hydrogen ion) to another substance.  A base is a molecule or ion able to accept a hydrogen ion from an acid.


Acid is a particular kind of chemical compound that when dissolved in water gives a solution with H+ ion activity more than the normal purified water. A base is a simple aqueous substance that donates electrons, accepts protons, or releases hydroxide (OH-) ions from themselves. Additionally, it's really necessary to learn the difference between acids and bases because mixing the two together can cause a severe reaction. For instance, when mixing vinegar and baking soda can create a great cleaning agent, mixing strong acids and bases can create toxic fumes or even explosions.

FAQs on Acids and Bases

1.  What are the basic differences between acids and bases?


Acids

Bases

Acids will produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. 

Bases will produce hydroxyl ions when being dissolved in water.

They will turn the blue litmus paper into red and have a sour taste.

They have the properties to turn the red litmus paper into blue color and have a bitter taste and are also soapy to touch. 

Its pH value ranges from 1 to 7. 

Its PH value ranges from 7-14.

Example HCL, H2SO4, etc.


Example NaOH, KOH, etc.


2. What are the theories involved with acids and bases?


3 main theories are explaining the acids and bases effectively so that we could get hold of the concept very well. First, The Arrhenius theory of acids and bases states that an acid generates H+ ions in a solution whereas a base produces an OH– ion in its solution. Then the Bronsted-Lowry theory defines an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor. Finally, the Lewis definition of acids and bases describes acids as electron-pair acceptors and bases as electron-pair donors.


3. Where are acids used effectively?


Vinegar, a diluted form of acetic acid, has various household applications where it is primarily used as a food preservative to keep any type of food fresh and use for longer days. Citric acid is mainly present in lemon juice and orange juice which can also be used in the preservation of food. Sulphuric acid is widely used in normal daily use batteries and car batteries to start the engines of automobiles, which commonly contain this acid. The industrial production of explosives, dyes, paints, and fertilizers involves the use of sulphuric acid and nitric acid. Phosphoric acid is a key ingredient in many soft drinks and that is why it is considered unhealthy.


4. What are the effective uses of Bases?


The process of manufacturing soap and paper that we almost use daily involves the use of sodium hydroxide. NaOH is also used in the manufacture of rayon. Ca(OH)2, also known as slaked lime or calcium hydroxide, is used to manufacture bleaching powder which is used for the deep cleaning process. Dry mixes that are involved in painting or decoration purposes are made with the help of calcium hydroxide. Magnesium hydroxide, also known as milk of magnesia, is commonly used as a laxative agency and also used as an antacid for stomach-related issues.


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