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Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond - NEET Important Topic

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Last updated date: 22nd Mar 2024
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What is Chemical Bonding ?

Chemical Bonding refers to the formation of a chemical bond between two or more atoms, molecules, or ions to give rise to a chemical compound. These chemical bonds are what keep the atoms together in the resulting compound. 


There are two types of bonds: ionic and covalent. Ionic bonds occur when there is a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of ions. Covalent bonds occur when electrons are shared equally between two atoms. In this article, let us learn about the Ionic Electrovalent bond and how ionic bonds are formed and its related concepts.


What is Ionic Bond?

Ionic bonds occur when there is a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of ions. Ions are atoms that have gained or lost protons and, as a result, have a net charge. Atoms tend to lose or gain electrons in order to achieve stability, and this results in ionic bonding. Ionic bond is also known as electrovalent bond. 


Ionic bonding is a type of chemical connection in which one atom loses and gains valence electrons from another. This exchange results in a more stable noble gas electrical state for both atoms involved. An ionic bond is formed by the attractive electrostatic interactions of two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds typically form between metals and non-metals.


Criteria for Ionic Bond Formation

Ionic bonds are usually formed between metals and nonmetals. The metal atom loses electrons to form positive ions (cations), while the non-metal gains those same electrons to form negative ions (anions). The oppositely charged ions then attract each other and form an ionic bond. This type of bond is typically very strong because it involves a complete transfer of electrons. However, it should be noted that ionic bonds can also be weak if the charges are not equal (e.g., if there is only a partial transfer of electrons).


Some of Key Factors Responsible for Formation of Ionic Bonds

The key factors that are responsible for the formation of ionic bond are mentioned below:

  • Metals should have the lowest ionisation enthalpy possible.

  • Nonmetals should have the highest electron gain enthalpy.

  • The energy released during the formation of one mole of the crystal lattice, i.e., the lattice enthalpy, must be large.


How Can Ionic Bonds be Broken?

Ionic chemicals are polar. Ionic chemicals dissolve in polar solvents such as water. Polar solvents dissolve when the ionic bonds are broken. Ionic bonds can be broken by dissolving the ionic substance in water. We can take examples of NaCl. The base rest $N{{a}^{+}}$ and the acid rest $C{{l}^{-}}$ are said to make up the salt NaCl. The formation of the cation involves the endothermic removal of electrons, which increases the system's overall energy. Breaking of existing bonds or the addition of additional electrons to generate anions may both result in energy shifts.


Ionic Bond Properties

  • Ionic bonds are formed when one atom donates an electron to another atom. This creates a pair of ions with opposite charges. The force that holds these ions together is called an electrostatic force.

  • Ionic bonds are usually strong because the electrostatic force is strong. However, ionic bonds can be broken if the ions are brought close enough together that the attractive force is overcome by the repulsive force between the electrons on the two ions.

  • Ionic bonds tend to be brittle, meaning they break easily. This is because there is no flexibility in the bond - the atoms are held rigidly in place by the electrostatic force.

  • Ionic compounds generally have high melting and boiling points because it takes a lot of energy to break all of the ionic bonds in the compound.


Ionic Bond Examples

One example of an ionic bond is the bond between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl). When sodium atoms donate their electrons to chlorine atoms, they form $N{{a}^{+}}$and $C{{l}^{-}}$ ions. These ions are attracted to each other by the electrostatic force, and this forms an ionic bond.


Another example of an ionic bond is the bond between magnesium (Mg) and oxygen (O). When magnesium atoms donate their electrons to oxygen atoms, they form $M{{g}^{2+}}$ and ${{O}^{2-}}$hions. These ions are also attracted to each other by the electrostatic force, and this forms an ionic bond.


Difference Between Ionic Bond and Covalent Bond


Ionic Bond

Covalent Bond

Ionic bonds are formed between atoms that have different electronegativity values.

Covalent bonds are formed between atoms that have the same or similar electronegativity values.

Ionic bonds involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.

Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms.

Ionic bonds typically form between metals and non-metals.

Covalent bonds can form between any combination of elements.

Ionic bonding generally results in the formation of compounds with high melting and boiling points.

Covalent bonding generally results in the formation of compounds with low melting and boiling points.

Ionic bonds are usually stronger than covalent bonds.

Covalent bonds are usually weaker than Ionic  bonds.


Summary

The chemical bonding concept is the idea that atoms are held together by forces that allow them to share electrons. Ionic bonds occur when there is a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another, resulting in the formation of ions. Ionic bonds are usually formed between metals and nonmetals. The metal atom loses electrons to form positive ions (cations), while the non-metal gains those same electrons to form negative ions (anions). Hope the article was helpful!

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FAQs on Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond - NEET Important Topic

1. What kind of force is present in ionic bonds?

Ionic bonding is a type of chemical connection in which one atom loses and another atom gains valence electrons from the atom that loses electrons. This exchange results in a more stable noble gas electrical state for both atoms involved. An ionic bond is formed by the attractive electrostatic interactions of two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds typically form between metals and non-metals.

2. Why do Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

The constituents of ionic compounds, i.e., oppositely charged particles, are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction. Therefore, a large amount of heat is supplied to separate the constituents from their lattice. So, to melt or boil ionic compounds, a large amount of lattice energy is needed. Hence, electrovalent or ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.