Important Notes on Anatomy of Flowering Plants for NEET

A Guide to Important Notes of Biology for NEET Anatomy of Flowering Plants

If you are studying for a National level exam like NEET, you must learn about important notes of biology for NEET anatomy of flowering-plants in great detail. The chapter is vital for NEET aspirants, and one should read the below points carefully.

Anatomy is the study of a flowering plant’s internal composition by cutting them in sections. It helps to understand the functioning of plants after careful analysis by anatomists. 

Reading such concepts can help you crack NEET with flying colours. So, remember to study the anatomy of flowering plants PDF along with other chapters.

Types of Flowering Plant’s Tissues

While studying about the important notes of biology for NEET anatomy of flowering-plants, one must also include knowledge of tissues. Tissues are a group of cells, belonging from a common origin, and they execute a similar type of function.

They can be divided as:

  1. Meristematic Tissue: These tissues comprises of cells which possess the capacity to divide. They exist in specific regions in a plant, and they are of three types, apical, lateral and intercalary meristem. The below table the types and functions of meristems in detail. Read them to know more:

Types and Functions of Meristems

Apical Meristems

Intercalary Meristems

Lateral Meristems

Apical meristems are available in the root’s tips and shoots. 

They are present within mature tissues.

They occur within the mature parts of roots and shoots.

They can manufacture primary tissues.

Similar to apical meristems, they can process primary tissues.

They are capable of creating secondary tissues.

They play a pivotal role in the growth of a plant’s length.

They can create branches and flowers, also known as axillary buds.

They are responsible for secondary growth in plants.


  1. Permanent Tissue: These tissues comprises of bundles of cells that do not have the capability of divisibility. They are further categorised into simple and complex tissues.

  1. Simple Tissues: They contain a single cell capable of performing the same structure and function. These comprise of parenchyma, sclerenchyma and collenchyma tissues. 

Parenchymatic tissues comprise cells with a thin cellular wall made of cellulose and intercellular spaces. Sclerenchymas are thick, elongated and narrow dead cells lacking protoplasts. However, collenchyma comprises of cells containing chloroplasts at times, with extremely thick corners.

  1. Complex Tissues: These tissues comprise of multiple cells performing different functions in close coordination. They are of two types, xylem and phloem. Xylem contains mostly tracheids, vessels and fibres, responsible for transporting water, whereas phloem consists of sieve tubes, fibres and parenchyma are responsible for transportation of food particles.

Notes on the Tissue System

If you are gathering information regarding the important notes of biology for NEET anatomy of flowering-plants, you must learn about the tissue system. The tissue system of plants shows its structure and functioning. These include:

  • Epidermal Tissue System: These are responsible for the formation of the outer covering of a plant. The epidermis contains a single layer along with a cytoplasm inside the cellular wall and a vacuole. Found in the stomata and epidermal cells, they aid the process of exchange of gases and transpiration in plants. 

  • Ground Tissue System: These comprise of simple tissues like sclerenchyma, parenchyma and collenchyma. Sclerenchyma and collenchyma add mechanical strength to the plants, whereas parenchyma aids storage and photosynthesis. Being produced by ground meristems, they provide strength to plants and synthesise organic compounds.

  • Vascular Tissue System: They contain vascular bundles, which gets further divided into xylem and phloem. These bundles have the capability of forming secondary tissues due to presence of cambium in them. They contain radical bundles where the phloem is present on the outer side of xylem. Conjoint ones have both phloem and xylem located on the same radius.

Did you know: Guard cells are bean-shaped cells layering on the stomata, and stomatal apparatus is the aperture present with the guard and subsidiary cells!

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Based on the organisation of tissues, roots get divided into two categories. Study the table below to understand them in detail.

Dicot Root

Monocot Root

It has a narrow cortex.

The cortex is comparatively wide.

Endodermal cells are less thick compared to monocot roots, and stripes are prominent.

The endodermis is extremely thick, and stripes appear in young plant’s roots.

The bundles of xylem and phloem are around 2 to 6 present.

The amount of xylem and phloem are more than six, and it varies.

Absence of pith or the presence of a tiny one.

It contains developed pith.

There is secondary growth.

Absence of secondary growth.


Take Care of Your Health and Concentrate on Studies!

We hope that by going through the above points, you would have an understanding of the important notes of biology for NEET anatomy of flowering-plants. Biology is a vital subject that contains around 90 questions in NEET exam. Therefore, read all the concepts carefully.

Besides, take care of your health while preparing for a National level exam. There is a vast competition every year as lakhs of students appear for the exam, but you should not feel overwhelmed!

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What do you mean by permanent tissues in flowering plants?

Ans. If you study botany anatomy of flowering plants carefully, you will find about permanent tissues. These tissues comprise of mature cells which cannot divide themselves and have an irreplaceable shape and structure. These cells can be thick or thin walls, living or dead, and lack function due to division of tissues.


2. What is the primary role of a parenchyma cell?

Ans. While reading about important notes of biology for NEET anatomy of flowering-plants, you will find an inevitable role of the parenchyma cells. These cells are present in the bulk of a plant’s ground tissues, and they aid the process of photosynthesis, transfer and storage of food particles.

3. What is the structure of a sclerenchyma cell?

Ans. Sclerenchyma cells play a vital role in providing support to a plant. It’s strong, and a thick cellular walls focus on adding strength to a plant to withstand external forces.