Floral Formula of Liliaceae

Liliaceae is a family of angiosperms. It is a family of monocotyledonous plants. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. It is widely distributed all over the world. It includes ornamental plants like lilies, tulips, medicinal plants, e.g. Aloe vera, Colchicum, etc. Onion, Garlic, Asparagus are the vegetables which belong to the Liliaceae family.


Family Liliaceae

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Floral Formula

A floral formula may be a symbol of various floral parts, their numbers, arrangement pattern and the way they're related. The floral formula of onion (onion) of the Liliaceae family is as follows:


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Here the Symbols Represent:

Br

Bracteate

Actinomorphic (radial symmetry)

Bisexual

P(3+3)

Perianth – 6 tepals in two whorls, gamophyllous (united)

A3+3

Androecium – 6 stamens, polyandrous (free), epiphyllous (attached to tepals)

G(3)

Gynoecium – tricarpellary, syncarpous (united), superior ovary


Systematic Position of Liliaceae

Kingdom: Plantae

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta

Super Division: Spermatophyta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Liliopsida

Subclass: Liliidae

Order: Liliales

Family: Liliaceae

Features Of Liliaceae Family

Some Common Plants

Liliaceae is a big family of flowering plants. Some common Examples are:

Common Name

Scientific Name 

Onion

Allium cepa

Garlic

Allium sativum

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis

Aloe vera

Aloe vera

Tulip

Tulipa sp.

Dragon plant

Dracaena marginata

Butcher’s broom

Ruscus aculeatus

Autumn Crocus

Colchicum autumnale

Lily

Lilium sp.


Description of The Family

Habit: Liliaceae family contains perennial herbaceous plants. They are monocot with great morphological diversity. Some are climbers and some are also trees.

Root: Typically they possess a fibrous root system.

Stem: Mostly herbaceous stems are known to be aerial or underground. Bulbs, corms or rhizomes are also present as the underground stems. Some of the aerial stems have phylloclades, which are modified leaf-like branches.

Leaf:  Leaves are mostly alternate, basal with parallel venation. Leaves are exstipulate, petiolate or sessile with variable shapes like scaly, succulent or modified to tendrils.

Inflorescence: Variable inflorescence, e.g. solitary, cymose umbel, etc.

Flower: Mostly bracteate, actinomorphic and hermaphrodite. The flower is generally trimerous and hypogynous.

Perianth: Tepals 6, biseriate (2 whorled), mostly united and have valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Stamens 6, polyandrous and epiphyllous or epitepalous. Present in two whorls.

Gynoecium: Tricarpellary, syncarpous with the superior and trilocular ovary. Each locule contains many ovules. Axile placentation. It contains one style and a three-lobed stigma.

Fruit: Mostly capsule, rarely a berry.

Seeds: Endospermic and with one cotyledon. The endosperm is fleshy or horny and contains aleuron or oil.

Pollination: This family mainly adopts entomophilous pollination that is being pollinated by insects.


Economic Importance

  • Many plants are used as vegetables, e.g. onion, garlic, asparagus, etc.

  • Many plants are of medicinal importance, e.g. Aloe vera, Smilax, etc. Colchicine is obtained from Colchicum.

  • Many ornamental plants also belong to the present family. E.g. Lilies, tulips, etc.

  • Some of the plants yield fibres, e.g Yucca.

To conclude, generally, the flowers of the Liliaceae family are bracteate, actinomorphic, bisexual, trimerous and hypogynous. The perianth is with six tepals, gamophyllous and biseriate. The androecium contains six polyandrous stamens, which are epiphyllous and present in two whorls. The gynoecium is tricarpellary and syncarpous with superior ovary having placentation.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Define Liliaceae

Ans - Liliaceae is a family of angiosperms. It is a family of monocotyledonous plants. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. It is widely distributed all over the world. It includes ornamental plants like lilies, tulips, medicinal plants, e.g. Aloe vera, Colchicum, etc. Onion, Garlic, Asparagus are the vegetables which belong to the Liliaceae family.

2. What are The Common Names of Some Common Plants?

Ans - The common names of some common plants are - 

Onion - Allium cepa

Aloe Vera - Aloe vera

Lily - Lilium sp.