Differences between Monera and Protista

Both Monera and Protista are kingdoms which are acknowledged during the classification of living organisms on earth. In simple words, Monera comprises archaebacteria, eubacteria and cyanobacteria, whereas Protista includes algae, protozoans and moulds.

Even though they include unicellular organisms, they are quite different from one another. For instance, the primary difference between Monera and Protista is – unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes are classified under kingdom Protista. On the other hand, unicellular prokaryotes are classified under the domain of Monera.

Read along, to find out other essential differences between Protista and Monera below!

What is Monera?

This kingdom contains unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which are considered to be least organised.  The organisms of this kingdom play a crucial role in the carbon cycle and nitrogen, and are metabolically diverse because of the use of substrates like carbon and energy. 

With the fact being that Monera are prokaryotes, these do not come with a membrane-bound organelle like a nucleus. Nonetheless, their cell wall is rigid and is composed of peptidoglycan.

Monera reproduce asexually through the process of fragmentation, binary fission and budding. Furthermore, horizontal gene transfer is also rampant in them.

Also, they serve as mineralisers and decomposers in the environment which show a different mode of nutrition. These following are some of the most important uses of bacteria, Monera.

  • Widely used for the process of fermentation.

  • Used in the process of bioremediation.

  • Facilitates the mechanism of pest control.

  • They are extensively used in the preparation of medicines. 

Domains of kingdom Monera include cyanobacteria, archaebacteria and eubacteria. 

What is Protista? 

This kingdom contains organisms which are considered to be the second least organised.  Essentially, Protista are eukaryotes and can be either multicellular or unicellular organism. 

Being eukaryotes, they come to have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Notably, the metabolism of Protista is dependent upon the type they belong to. 

Typically, their nucleus has multiple DNA strands. They depend on mitochondria for cellular respiration while some of them also possess chloroplast, which is useful for photosynthesis. 

They reproduce sexually by producing gametes while in case of asexual reproduction, they multiply through binary fission.  They have an array of uses, and some of them are as follows –

  • They serve as a source of medicine.

  • Aids biological research.

  • They are also used as edibles.

  • Serve as a source of mineral and commercial products.

Algae, moulds and protozoans are among the distinctive domains of Protista. 

There are several aspects about Monera and Protista which set them apart from each other. This table below highlights some of the most significant ones in brief. 

Difference between Monera and Protista






Cell level

Monera comprises unicellular microorganisms.

Protista comprises both unicellular and multicellular organisms.


Cell organelles

Does not contain membrane-bound organelles.

Consists of membrane organelles including plastids, Golgi apparatus, etc.


Structure complexity

These organisms have a simple structure.

These organisms have a complex structure. 



The kingdom includes cyanobacteria, bacteria and archaebacteria.

The kingdom includes diatoms, algae, protozoans and diatoms.



Smaller than Protista as they contain small microorganisms. 

Relatively larger than Monera as they contain larger organisms.


Cell wall

The cell wall is not well-defined.

The cell wall is present and well-defined.



They are found everywhere.

They are found in moist and shady places and aquatic regions.



The actual nucleus is absent in Monera.

Nucleus is attached to the nuclear membrane in Protista. 


Flagella, Pseudopodia and cilia

Most of them do not contain cilia, pseudopodia or flagella.

They facilitate locomotion in Protista. 



Monera reproduces asexually through budding or binary fission.

Protista reproduces both sexually and asexually.


Mode of nutrition 

They are either heterotrophic or autotrophic.

They can be holozoic, photosynthetic or parasitic.


Mode of respiration 

Cellular respiration occurs aerobically or through fermentation.

Cellular respiration occurs aerobically. 



Sphorobacter, bacillus, mycobacteria, etc. 

Green algae, red algae, euglena, etc.

Hence, it can be seen that differences between them are not just limited to the classification of Monera and Protista. In fact, a subtle distinction exists between the two in almost all vital aspects. 

Furthermore, Protists are considered to be a predecessor of eukaryotes; however, they are different from the category of plants, animals and even fungi. 

Other than that both Monera and Protista are considered crucial not just for biology, but also for economics.

Boost your NEET 2020 Preparation!

As the NEET 2020 exam inches closer, the level of anxiety and pressure is bound to increase too. However, the key to emerging successful in these entrance exams is to maintain a calm composure and to use the last moments of these revision days smartly.

Additionally, prioritise important topics like Monera and Protista and make sure to cover almost all important concepts in detail. Furthermore, incorporate charts, tables and diagrams in your study plan to remember essential features easily.

For instance, a table highlighting the difference between monera and Protista will make revision quick and effective.

So, keep calm and revise smart. Good luck!

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are some examples of Monera and Protista?

Ans. The most common Monera are bacillus, halobacterium, mycobacteria, sporohalpobacter and clostridium. On the other hand, green algae, slime moulds, water moulds, red algae and euglena are popular examples of Protista. 

2. What are the basic differences between Protista and Monera?

Ans. The basic difference between them is – Monera are unicellular and prokaryotic cellular structures, whereas Protista are unicellular and eukaryotic cellular structure. Cell organelles are absent in Monera, but Protista is well-defined and has membrane-bound organelles.

3. How do Monera and Protista respire?

Ans.  In Monera, cellular respiration occurs in 2 ways – fermentation and aerobic respiration. On the other hand, in the case of Protista, this process of respiration is aerobic and is dependent on mitochondria.

4. How do Monera and Protista reproduce?

Ans. Monera tends to reproduce asexually through the process of binary fission, fragmentation and budding. On the other hand, Protista usually reproduces either sexually by producing gametes or asexually through the process of binary fission.