Ascomycetes

Introduction

Fungi are divided into two broad subgroups based on their sexual spore formation, they are ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. As in all macrofungi, there is the formation of sexual spores, which lead to a combination of genetic information from two parents. The presence of fruiting bodies tells us about the types of fungi section that produce and dispersal of sexual spores. Whereas some macrofungal species may also produce asexual spores.

What is Ascomycetes?

Ascomycetes are organisms that belong to the phylum Ascomycota. The phylum Ascomycota is the largest in the kingdom of fungus, with about 64000 species. They are part of the Dikarya sub-kingdom. Today, in this article we are going to learn about Ascomycetes, their life cycle, their importance, and more. Let’s start by understanding Ascomycetes.


Define Ascomycetes - A fungi which develops inside the asci means cylindrical sac is known as ascomycetes. Cylindrical sacs include moulds, mildews, and yeasts, the fungal component of most lichens, and a few large forms such as morels and truffles.

 

Phylum Ascomycota is also called ascomycetes and it is considered as the largest phylum of the fungi kingdom with approx 64000 species. All these come under the subkingdom Dikarya due to the presence of dikaryon. Ascomycetes produce a sexual non-motile spore called ascospores and the sac-like structures are known as an ascus. Every ascus contains nearly four to eight ascospores and they are commonly known as sac fungi.

 

The living habitat and the feeding habits of the ascomycetes are very diverse, some of them are saprophytes and the others are pathogens causing various diseases in plants and animals. Some of the ascomycetes are edible like mushrooms and some of them live in a symbiotic association like lichens and mycorrhiza. Some of the ascomycetes examples are yeast, powdery mildews, cup fungi, morels, truffles, Neurospora, Aspergillus, Cladonia, Penicillium, Candida, Claviceps, etc.

 

Ascomycetes are very important economically in the form of fermented food (bread, cheese, alcoholic beverages), antibiotics (Penicillin) and various chemicals. And many species of ascomycetes are used in biological studies and research (yeast, Neurospora), morels and truffles are used as delicacies. Ascomycetes are classified based on the different structures of asci and depending on the method of releasing ascospore.

Definition of Ascomycetes

The presence of asci and spores characterises a class of fungi that has two different reproductive phases, a perfect stage and an imperfect stage. The group includes yeast, penicillium, aspergillus, truffles, and certain mildews.

General Characteristics of Ascomycetes 

Some of the characteristics of ascomycetes are given below.

  • The reproductive structure of the ascomycetes is known as ascus or asci 

  • Most of the ascomycetes are terrestrial, parasitic or coprophilous.

  • It might be unicellular or multicellular fungi 

  • The mycelium of the ascomycetes is made up of septate or branched hyphae and the cell wall is made up of chitin or ꞵ-glucans.

  • Ascomycetes have cytoplasmic continuity due to septal pores.

  • In ascomycetes, asexual reproduction is by the formation of conidia exogenously on conidiophores and Sexual reproduction is by conjugation between two gametangia. They can be either homothallic or heterothallic

  • In ascomycetes, the fruiting body is called ascocarp and there are mainly four types of ascocarps. Ascomycetes examples of ascospores are cleistothecium, perithecium, apothecium, and ascostroma. 

  • Ascospores are produced endogenously in ascii. 

Ascomycetes Reproduction Sexually 

Two different mating types of hyphae come together and fuse. After fusion Plasmogamy takes place, but it does not follow karyogamy immediately. According to dikaryon, the fused structures of ascomycetes contain two haploid nuclei, one from each parent to form a diploid zygote.

 

Formation of Ascospore: The diploid zygote undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid nuclei, which undergoes mitotic division to form 8 haploid nuclei and each of the nuclei accumulates cytoplasm and a thick wall surrounds it. They are known as cospores. These ascospores germinate to form new mycelia under favourable conditions. 

Ascomycetes Life Cycle

Asexual Reproduction Life Cycle 

  • Most of the species undergo asexual reproduction by the formation of multinucleated conidia.

  • Conidia are formed from the conidiogenous cells.

  • These cells are formed at the tip of modified hyphae called conidiophores or conidia bearers.

Sexual Reproduction Life Cycles 

The sexual life cycle of ascomycetes involves nuclear fusion and meiosis, which occurs only in those possessing ascii because it is within the young ascus where the events occur. Ascospores include one or more haploid nuclei and therefore most of the ascomycetes have a haploid vegetative mycelium. Mycelium is also capable of sexual reproduction, which occurs by fragmentation, budding or formation of conidia, chlamydospore, and sclerotia.

 

The mating behaviour of the ascomycetes may be homothallic or heterothallic. In homothallic, the mycelium is derived from a single ascospore, which is capable of reproducing sexually. By developing the asci, some of the examples are Pyronema domesticum and Sordaria fimicola.

Economic Importance of Ascomycetes 

They are one of the biggest groups of fungi having diverse habitats. Many useful products are derived from them like foods, medicines, and some chemical products. 

  • Many food industries depend on yeast for fermentation like brewing, bread and cheese making. 

  • They are used to make antibiotics like penicillin, which is derived from  Penicillium chrysogenum.

  • Ascomycetes produce many organic acids and enzymes like citric acid, gluconic acid, amylases, proteases, etc.

  • Ciclosporin derived from the fungus Tolypocladium niveum is used to transplant organs and treat autoimmune diseases. It is used as an immunosuppressant.

  • It is used to prepare different types of cheese using different penicillium species like camembert, brie, and Roquefort.

  • Ascomycetes like Claviceps purpurea (Ergot) are used as medicine to stop excessive bleeding during menstrual periods and to speed up labour.

  • They are one of the delicacies like morels, truffles and lobster mushrooms. Aspergillus is used to prepare soya sauce and also other Asian alcoholic beverages. 

  • Some of the ascomycetes are widely used to study genetics Neurospora, Saccharomyces, etc.

Conclusion 

After going through what is ascomycetes? Ascomycetes life cycle, we understood that it involves two types of reproduction sexual and asexual, due to the small size of the spore they can easily spread through the wind. Also, we got to know ascomycetes are very important for economic development and it also has many medicinal uses and importance in the food industry.  

 

We hope this article is helpful to the students. The article is prepared by subject experts. If you have any queries or suggestions, please let us know in the comment section below.

FAQs on Ascomycetes

1. Why is Yeast Classified as Ascomycetes?

Yeasts are classified as ascomycetes because they are non-motile single cells with chitinous cell walls, so they are classified under fungi. Ascomycetes mainly reproduce by budding and fission, yeasts also engage in sexual reproduction that results in the production of an ascus, which makes them classified under Ascomycota.

2. Which is the Member of Ascomycetes?

The members of the Ascomycota include well-described filamentous fungi Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei), Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

3. Where are Ascomycetes Found?

The species of the ascomycetes are found in dryland around the world. In habitats ranging from tropical and temperate forests to grasslands and beyond. Some of the species of Ascomycota also live in extreme environments, one example is coccidioides immitis.  

4. What are the characteristics of Ascomycetes?

Sac fungi are the common name for ascomycetes. They have septate and branched mycelium. Conidia are formed when they reproduce asexually. Ascospores, which grow in a sac-like structure called an ascus, are used for sexual reproduction.

5. Explain sexual reproduction in Ascomycetes.

The sexual reproduction in Ascomycetes is as follows:

  1. The hyphae of two different mating types come together and fuse 

  2. Plasmogamy happens, but it will not immediately follow karyogamy 

  3. The fusion structure contains two haploid nuclei from each parent, i.e. dikaryon. 

  4. Dikaryotic cells produce new hyphae. 

  5. At the tip of the hyphae, the ascus develops in the ascus. 

  6. In each ascus, two cell nuclei fuse (nucleus match) to form a diploid fertilized egg 

  7. The formation of ascospores: the diploid zygote undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid nuclei, and then undergoes mitosis to form 8 haploid nuclei. 

  8. Each cell nucleus accumulates cytoplasm and the thick cell wall that surrounds it. These are called ascospores. 

  9. Ascospores are released from the asci through holes, slits, or hinged lids, and are dispersed by airflow. 

  10. Under favourable conditions, ascospores germinate to form a new mycelium.

6. What is the difference between Ascomycetes and Phycomycetes?

Ascomycetes have septate mycelium, whereas Phycomycetes have aseptate and coenocytic mycelium. Karyogamy occurs directly after plasmogamy in Phycomycetes, whereas in Ascomycetes it occurs later, leading to the dikaryotic phase.

7. What are the four types of ascocarps?

The four types of ascocarps are:

  • Cleistothecium: The fruiting body is spherical and tightly closed, such as in the case of Aspergillus.

  • Perithecium: The flask-shaped fruiting body with one exterior opening, such as Neurospora.

  • Apothecium: A cup-shaped fruiting body with asci present in hymenium. For eg: Peziza.

  • Ascostroma: There are no distinct fruiting bodies. Mycosphaerella, for example, has asci in its stroma.

8. What is Ascomycota?

Ascomycota is a phylum of fungi that includes the majority of fungal species on the planet. Although the actual number of species is unknown, there are at least 30,000 and possibly above 65,000. Individual members are known as ascomycetes, and because of the way they reproduce, they are also known as sac fungi. Instead of seeds, they produce an ascus, which looks like a sac and contains the spores they release. Ascomycetes are a diverse group of organisms that include everything from baking yeast to edible mushrooms like morels and truffles. 

9.  Are NEET mock tests helpful in preparations?

Yes, NEET mock tests are helpful in preparations. There are many benefits of the mock test. They are:

  • The mock tests are a perfect source for practising. It will help the students to increase their speed of solving the problems and identify the areas in which they need to improve.

  • The mock tests will help the students to strategize their time in accordance. They will get an idea of how much time they need for each section for the NEET exam. 

  • The students will get an idea of the difficulty level of the questions. Simpler topics are frequently tinkered with and asked in the exam. Students can deduce these types of questions and create ways to answer them in the shortest amount of time via mock tests.

  • Preparing with mock tests allows students to become familiar with the actual exam setting by simulating the look and feel of the exam. To assess students' knowledge, these tests are also conducted in a simulated environment.

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