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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit Of Life

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NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 8: Complete Resource for Cell The Unit of Life

CBSE Class 11 bio Chapter 8 cell the unit of life Solutions are essential materials for the students as it will help students to secure good marks in their Class 8 exam. The NCERT Solutions of Class 11 Chapter 8 Cell the Unit of Life is designed by professionals who have significant experience and know-how of the entire course and in this field. These are designed specifically keeping in mind the guidelines of NCERT. Get the solutions to avail answers to the chapter. The solutions are available and easily accessible moreover these are free to download. 


Class:

NCERT Solutions for Class 11

Subject:

Class 11 Biology

Chapter Name:

Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit Of Life

Content-Type:

Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:

2024-25

Medium:

English and Hindi

Available Materials:

Chapter Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes



Note: Calculate your potential NEET rank based on marks with our NEET Rank Predictor by Marks!


Cell: The Unit of Life Chapter at a Glance for - Class 11 NCERT Solutions


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  Cell: The Unit of Life

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Mastering Class 11 Biology Chapter 8: Cell The Unit of Life - MCQs, Question and Answers, and Tips for Success

1. Which of the following is not correct?

(a) Robert Brown discovered the cell.

(b) Schleiden and Schwann formulated the cell theory.

(c) Virchow explained that cells are formed from pre-existing cells

(d) A unicellular organism carries out its life activities within a single cell.

Ans: The incorrect statement is (a) Robert Brown discovered the cell.


2. New cells generate from

(a) bacterial fermentation

(b) regeneration of old cells

(c) pre-existing cells

(d) abiotic materials

Ans: New cells generate from (c) pre-existing cells


3. Match the following


Column I

Column II

(a) Cristae

(i) Flat membranous sacs in stroma

(b) Cisternae

(ii) Infoldings in mitochondria

(c) Thylakoids

(iii) Disc-shaped sacs in Golgi apparatus


Ans:

Column I

Column II

(a) Cristae

(ii) Infoldings in mitochondria

(b) Cisternae

(iii) Disc-shaped sacs in Golgi apparatus

(c) Thylakoids

(i) Flat membranous sacs in stroma


4. Which of the following is correct?

(a) Cells of all living organisms have a nucleus.

(b) Both animal and plant cells have well-defined cell walls.

(c) In prokaryotes, there are no membrane-bound organelles

(d) Cells are formed de novo from abiotic materials

Ans: The correct statement is (c) In prokaryotes, there are no membrane-bound organelles.


5. What is a mesosome in a prokaryotic cell? Mention the functions that it performs.

Ans: Mesosomes are formed by the infoldings of plasma membranes. They are mainly found in bacteria. Functions of Mesosomes are listed below:

i) These extensions help in cell wall formation and DNA replication and distribution of equal chromosomes in daughter cells.

ii) They contain enzymes for aerobic respiration and also helps in secretion processes and to increase the surface area of the plasma membrane and enzymatic content


Mesosome


6. How do neutral solutes move across the plasma membrane? Can the polar molecules also move across it in the same way? If not then how are these transported across the membrane?

Ans: Neutral solutes do not carry any charge because they move across the plasma membrane through osmosis. while polar molecules are charged molecules so they cannot pass through the non-polar membrane. To cross the non-polar membrane they require a carrier protein that facilitates its transport inside the cell. If this transport takes place against the concentration gradient, it will require energy in the form of ATP.


7. Name two cell organelles that are double membrane-bound. What are the characteristics of these two organelles? State their functions and draw labelled diagrams of both.

Ans: Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the two double membranous organelles. They both are also called semi-autonomous organelles because they contain their own DNA molecules. They also have 70S types of ribosomes that are found in the cytoplasm.


Characteristics of Mitochondria are:

1) Mitochondria are rod-shaped structures and generally found in the cytoplasm of cells with other organelles. 

2) They are principally concerned with energy generation in the form of ATP by converting chemical energy. 

3) Mitochondria are surrounded by two membranes – outer and inner where the outer membrane covers the organelle. However, the inner membrane is folded and forms a layered structure. This layered structure contains several finger-like projections called cristae. 

4) The inner mitochondrial membrane also possesses F0F1 particles called oxysomes. These oxysomes are responsible for ATP generation by using electron transport systems. 

5) The Citric Acid cycle takes place in the inner mitochondrial membrane that encloses a mitochondrial matrix.


Functions of Mitochondria are:

1) Mitochondria are called the powerhouse of a cell because it generates ATP by cellular respiration.

2) They provide energy in the form of ATP to perform all the important activities of living cells.

3) They are regarded as semi-autonomous organelle because they have their own DNA and ribosomes. 

4) Citric acid cycle taking place in the matrix of mitochondria where it generates several metabolic intermediates. These intermediates are required for the biosynthesis of various amino acids and proteins.


Mitochondria Ribosomes


Characteristics of Chloroplast are:

1) The Chloroplasts are also double membrane-bound organelles and are found all over the cytoplasm of plant cells.

2) They contain chlorophyll that makes them appear green in colour.

3) The chloroplast is made up of two membranes i.e., inner and outer. The space limited by the inner membrane of the chloroplast is known as the stroma that contains metabolic enzymes and multiple copies of the chloroplast genome.

4) There are a number of organized flattened membranous sacs called the thylakoids present in the stroma.

5) These thylakoids are stacked one over the other to form a granum that looks like a stack of coins. 

6) Apart from this, there are flat membranous tubules called the stroma lamellae. They connect the thylakoids of the different grana.

7) A lumen is a space that is formed by the membrane of the thylakoids. 


Functions of Chloroplast are:

Chloroplasts are also known as the kitchen of the cell.

1) They trap solar energy and utilize it for manufacturing food for plants. They are involved in the process of photosynthesis.

2) Chloroplast contains the enzymes required for the synthesis of carbohydrates and proteins


Chloroplast


8. What are the characteristics of prokaryotic cells?

Ans: In prokaryotic terms pro means ‘primitive’ and karyon means ‘nucleus’, which means prokaryotic cells have a very primitive and less defined nucleus. They do not possess any membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria, chloroplast, Golgi body, Endoplasmic reticulum, etc. Examples include archaea and bacteria. Other characteristics of prokaryotic cells are given below:

1)  Most of the prokaryotic cells are unicellular.

2) The size of a prokaryotic cell varies from 0.5 – 5 µm and is generally small in size.

3) The nuclear region of a prokaryotic cell is poorly defined and the genetic material is present in the region of the cytoplasm.

4) In prokaryotic cells, the DNA is found naked which means DNA is not associated with histone proteins. 

5) They have single, circular chromosomes as genetic material. except for the genomic DNA, they also contain circular plasmid DNA.

6) Mesosomes are the specialized membranous structures that are found in prokaryotic cells. It is formed by the invagination of the cell membrane and these extensions help in the synthesis of the cell wall and replication of DNA. 

7) Prokaryotic cells contain cell walls as an outer covering that gives shape to the cells. 


prokaryotic Cell


9. Multicellular organisms have a division of labor. Explain.

Ans: A multicellular organism has cells as a basic structural unit in its body. The cells are arranged in a manner to form tissues like blood, bone, etc. and these tissues are arranged in a manner to form organs like the heart, kidney, or other body organs. These organs form an organ system such as the digestive system, reproductive system, and respiratory system, etc. and various organ systems of the organism perform together to form a complete individual.


10. Cells are the basic unit of life. Discuss in brief.

Ans: There are several organ systems that function together to form an organism. Each organ system like the nervous system, digestive system, circulatory system, etc., includes several organs. And these organs are formed by several types of tissues. A tissue is formed combinedly by the cells that interconnect with each other and perform a shared function. A cell can do all an organism can do this is the reason the cells are called the basic building blocks of all organisms.


11. What are nuclear pores? State their function.

Ans: Nuclear pores are small holes present in the nuclear envelope of the nucleus. This nucleus envelope is formed by the fusion of two nuclear membranes. These small holes only allow some specific substances to be transferred into the cell cytoplasm and back to the nucleus. However, they allow few molecules like RNA and proteins to move in both directions between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.


12. Both lysosomes and vacuoles are endomembrane structures, yet they differ in terms of their functions. Comment.

Ans: Both lysosomes and vacuoles are single membranous structures and both perform different types of functions. Lysosomes can hydrolyze all types of organic substances, except cellulose because it contains hydrolytic enzymes that work under acidic pH. They perform phagocytic functions and hence, are known as suicidal bags.

However, the vacuoles are non-cytoplasmic sacs covered by a membrane. It is found in animal and plant cells both that contain sap, water, excretory substances, etc. The membrane surrounding the vacuole is called tonoplast which is semi-permeable in nature. Vacuole separates harmful substances from cell cytoplasm and maintains osmotic pressure or turgidity. Some freshwater invertebrates like Amoeba, Paramecium, etc. contain contractile vacuoles. This contractile vacuole performs several functions like osmoregulation and excretion. The other type of vacuole is known as food vacuole. It stores the food while gas vacuoles store metabolic gases and take part in buoyancy regulation


13. Describe the structure of the following with the help of labelled diagrams.

(i) Nucleus 

Ans: The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that controls all the cellular activities of the cell. It plays an important role in cell division. It is relatively large and spherical in shape and is composed of the following structures:

Nucleoplasm: It is the matrix of the nucleus that contains the nucleolus and chromatin. The nucleolus is made up of protein and RNA molecules and is the site for ribosome formation. It is a spherical structure that is not bound by any membrane. The chromatin reticulum found within the nucleoplasm is made up of DNA and histone proteins. It is highly entangled but at the time of cell division chromatin reticulum condenses into chromosomes.


Eukaryotic Nucleus


(ii) Centrosome

Ans: The centrosome is made up of two cylindrical structures that lie perpendicular to each other called centrioles. These centrioles are linked with each other by interconnected fibres. Each centriole has a cartwheel-like arrangement which is made up of microtubule triplets that are evenly placed in a ring. A proteinaceous hub is present in the central part of a centriole which is connected to the triplets via radial spokes. The centrioles play a vital role in forming the spindle fibres and astral rays during cell division and also forms the basal body of cilia and flagella


Centrosome


14. What is a centromere? How does the position of the centromere form the basis of the classification of chromosomes? Support your answer with a diagram showing the position of the centromere on different types of chromosomes.

Ans: Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of each cell. It is a thread-like structure that is not visible in the cell’s nucleus. But at the time of cell division, it becomes more tightly packed, and then only it is visible under a microscope. Each chromosome joined at the centromere or the primary constriction and hence consists of two chromatids. These centromeres are the point of attachment of spindle fibres and play a vital role in cell division.

On the basis of the position of the centromere, chromosomes are classified into the following types: 

(1) Acrocentric Chromosome: In this type of chromosome, the centromere is present at the sub-terminal. In the Anaphase stage chromosomes are J-shaped.

(2) Sub-metacentric Chromosome: In this type of chromosome, the centromere is sub-median and the anaphasic chromosome appears L-shaped.

(3) Metacentric Chromosomes: In this type of chromosome, the centromere is present in the middle and divides the chromosome into two equal parts. The chromosome appears V-shaped.

(4) Telocentric Chromosome: In this type of chromosome, the centromere is present at the terminal. The anaphasic stage appears l-shaped.

Depending upon the number of centromeres, a chromosome is of different types.

(i) Monocentric: with a single centromere

(ii) Dicentric: with two centromeres

(iii) Polycentric: with many centromeres

(iv) Acentric chromosome: there is no centromere


Centromere


NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit of Life

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 PDF is a useful source of information available to the students so that they can learn and adapt the various techniques and methodologies that aid them to answer the questions efficiently. Once the students go through the solutions of Chapter 8, Cell the Unit of Life of Class 11, they will get the understanding of how vital cell is to live, a detailed explanation of the textbook answers, notes for revision, concept videos, and MCQs to hone their understanding and test their knowledge.

Cell the Unit of Life Class 11 NCERT PDF is an easy-to-read document which includes all of the necessary and up to date study materials described clearly in an incisive manner. Students can fully prepare themselves for their board exams with the help of the NCERT Solution. Cell the unit of life Class 11 NCERT Solutions PDF download is easily available. 


Class 11 Cell the Unit of Life NCERT Solutions

The NCERT Solution for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 ‘Cell the Unit of Life’ deals with the fundamentals in the field of Biology. The NCERT Class 11 Cell the Unit of Life chapter is divided into two parts. In Class 11 Bio ch 8 NCERT Solutions, the students will understand and be able to discuss the cell theory, an overview of the cell, and also about Prokaryotic cells and Eukaryotic Cells are explained in the chapter. The functions and structure of the cell are explained with diagrams and comprehensive text in Chapter 8 Biology Class 11 PDF. The students will also get to learn the mechanism of the cell excitingly. 

In Cell the Unit of Life Class 11 PDF solutions, the students can acquire all the answers as it is prepared with images and complete explanations for the students to utilise the same to score good marks in the exam. 


CBSE Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 NCERT Solutions - Weightage Marks

The weightage of marks for CBSE Biology of Class 11 is 70 marks of theory and 30 marks of practical. Below is the classification of marks according to units.

Theory:

Units

Title

Marks

Unit – I

Diversity of Living Organism

07 Marks

Unit – II

Structural Organisation in Plants & Animals

11 Marks

Unit – III

Cell: Structure and Function

15 Marks

Unit – IV

Plant Physiology

17 Marks

Unit – V

Human Physiology

10 + 10 = 20 Marks


Total

70 Marks


Practical:

Evaluation Scheme

Marks

One Major Experiment Part A (Expt No. 1, 3, 7, 8)

05 Marks

One Minor Experiment Part A (Expt No. 6, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13)

04 Marks

Slide Preparation Part A (Expt No. 2, 4, 5)

05 Marks

Spotting Part B

07 Marks

Project Record + Viva Voice

05 Marks

Practical Record + Viva Voice

04 Marks

Total

30 Marks


Benefits of NCERT Biology Class 11 Chapter 8 PDF

11th Biology Chapter 8 cell the unit of life is an essential chapter for the students as it covers in detail all the aspects of a cell such as; Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life, structure and function, different types and parts of cells, etc. The benefits of the NCERT Biology Class 11, Chapter 8 may be as follows:

  • The NCERT Solutions cover up all the fundamental concepts related to cell.

  • In the solution, extra attention is given toward answering methodologies and understanding the fundamentals.

  • Appropriate use of tables and diagrams makes the content more exciting and understandable.

  • All the concepts are being elucidated in an easy and simple manner.

  • The solutions in the PDF are researched and reviewed by subject matter experts.

  • The solutions provide a great way of learning and are available in a free, downloadable format.

NCERT Solution provides the students of Class 11 an insightful learning experience.


Conclusion

The NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit of Life provided by Vedantu are an excellent resource for students preparing for their exams. The solutions cover all the important topics in the chapter, including the structure and functions of cells, cell division, and the different types of cells. The solutions are presented in a clear and concise manner, with diagrams and illustrations to help students understand the concepts better. Vedantu also provides additional study materials such as notes, sample papers, and solutions to previous year question papers, which can help students prepare more effectively for their exams. By using these resources, students can develop a deeper understanding of the cell, which is the basic unit of life. They can also perform well in their exams and gain a strong foundation in biology, which can be useful for their future studies and careers.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 - Cell The Unit Of Life

1. What is a Cell?

A cell is the basic unit or cell is the structural and functional unit of life. It contains the fundamental molecules of life, and this is what all living things are composed of. Both plants and animals are composed of cells and it can be said to be that any function by any living being is the function of cells. The word cell has been derived from the Latin word ‘cella’ which means small room. The cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently. 

2. Why is the Cell Known as the Unit of Life?

The cell is known as the structural and functional unit of life as all living organisms are made up of cells. Cells are the primary form of life that has the ability to exhibit the characteristics of life. Moreover, cells provide form and structure, process nutrients and convert it into usable energy. Cells have specific functions of specific organisms, functions in multicellular organisms are complex and cells perform accordingly.

3. Why is the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8 considered to be the best study material for the CBSE students?

It is the best because the NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are prepared by India’s best online learning website. Vedantu provides live online sessions and a free PDF of NCERT Solutions for the students. To get well versed in this chapter, students can make use of the important questions provided by Vedantu. These questions are solved by highly educated subject experts to help the students clarify their doubts.

4. Explain the functions of Memosome from Chapter 8 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology.

Memosome helps in cell wall formation. It helps in the process of secretion and respiration. Memosome helps in the distribution of DNA replication. Students are advised to make use of the NCERT Solutions provided by Vedantu to understand the fundamental concepts in a simplified manner.

5. Is Chapter 8 Biology Class 11 important for the board exams?

Yes, Chapter 8 of Biology Class 11 is important for the exams. To understand the topics well, students can practise the important questions designed by the experts at Vedantu to get well versed in this chapter. Download the PDF of NCERT Solutions on the Vedantu website or the Vedantu app for free of cost to secure a perfect score in the exam.

6. Is Chapter 8 of Biology Class 11 difficult to study?

No, Chapter 8 of Biology Class 11 is not that difficult to study when you understand the topics. Vedantu provides NCERT Solutions and online live classes by experts to clear the doubts and make it easier for the students to understand. These solutions are prepared by the experts to clear the doubts of the students. To download the PDF of important questions, students are advised to visit the Vedantu website or download the Vedantu app for free of cost.

7. What does Chapter 8 Biology Class 11 deal with?

Chapter 8 Biology Class 11 is about Cell The unit of life and deals with the structure of the cells and their functions. To get in-depth knowledge of this chapter, download the NCERT Solutions prepared by the experts at Vedantu. These solutions are prepared by the experts to clear the doubts of the students. To download the PDF of important questions, students are advised to visit the page NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 8. Students can simply download the solutions and save them on their computers.  They can refer to these solutions anytime they have doubts and queries.