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Survey Sampling Methods

Last updated date: 25th Feb 2024
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What are Survey Sampling Methods?

The field of sample survey methods is concerned with efficient methods for gathering data samples. Mail surveys, telephone surveys, and personal interview surveys are the three most popular forms of sample surveys. All of these include the use of a questionnaire, for which there is a wealth of information about how to phrase, sequence, and group questions. Some forms of sample surveys do not require the use of a questionnaire. Sample survey example, Sample surveys that use direct observation of the sampled units to gather data include sampling accounting records for audits and using a computer to sample a large database.

Here, students will understand sample survey meaning and various survey sampling methods. Students will also get to know the advantages of different sampling methods.

Sampling Methods Statistics

Sampling is a method that allows researchers to infer information about a population based on results from a subset of the population, without having to investigate every individual.

There are several sampling methods statistics techniques available, and they can be subdivided into two groups: probability sampling and non-probability sampling. 

  • When you begin with a full sampling frame of all eligible individuals from which to pick your sample in probability (random) sampling. As a result, all qualifying individuals will have a better chance of being selected for the survey, and you will be able to generalize the findings of your research. Probability sampling methods take longer and cost more money than non-probability sampling methods.

  • Since you don't start with a full sampling frame in non-probability (non-random) sampling, some people have no chance of being chosen. As a consequence, the effect of sampling error cannot be estimated, and there is a substantial risk of producing a non-representative sample with non-generalizable effects. Non-probability sampling methods, on the other hand, are less expensive and more compact, making them ideal for exploratory study and hypothesis generation.

What is Sample Survey?

Sample Survey Definition - A sample survey is one that is conducted using a sampling process, which means that only a subset of the population is surveyed rather than the whole population.

A survey is an investigation into the characteristics of a given population that involves collecting data from a sample of that population and estimating their characteristics using statistical methods in a systematic manner.

Census and Sample Survey

There are two types of surveys that can be used to gather information in various situations to meet various needs. There are censuses and sample surveys.

A census or a sample survey may be used to learn more about the characteristics of a community of individuals, families, businesses, or other entities. In a census, data on all individual units (such as individuals or households) in the population is collected. Data is only obtained for a subset of the population in a survey, which is referred to as a sample. The characteristics of the whole population are then estimated using these statistics. In this case, the sample must be representative of the target population. The proportion of people under the age of 18 or the proportion of women and men in the selected sample of households, for example, must represent reality in the general population.

Advantages of Sample Surveys Compared with Censuses 

  • Reduces costs, both in terms of money and in terms of manpower.

  • Since it needs a smaller scale of activity, it cuts down on the time it takes to capture, process, and deliver results.

  • Allows for the testing of characteristics that would otherwise be impossible to determine. Consider the lifespan of light bulbs, the power of springs, and so on. Since testing all light bulbs of a specific brand will require destroying the commodity, only a sample of bulbs can be checked.

  • Importantly, surveys reduce respondent burden by requiring fewer people to provide the necessary data.

  • The results should be made available in a timely manner.

What is a Statistical Survey?

Any systematic inquiry designed to collect aggregated data, whether qualitative or quantitative, where the individual or corporate identities of the respondents are of little significance is referred to as a statistical survey.

It is based on the concept of including all or part of the population, whether by choosing a subset of the population using the probabilistic sampling method or by including all units of the population using the systematic survey or census method.

The need for information on special features in a statistical population that is currently inaccessible or inadequate prompts the introduction of statistical surveys.

Steps of Implementing a Statistical Survey 

It might appear that conducting a statistical survey is a simple task, assuming that all that is required is the collection of data, analysis, and conclusion.

A statistical survey is carried out in a sequence of measures, each of which contains a distinct collection of formats and procedures.

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The following are the stages of implementing the statistical survey:

  • The statistical survey is being planned.

  • Developing the statistical survey's priorities and objectives.

  • Choosing the sampling frame and statistical unit for the survey.

  • Choosing an effective sampling strategy.

  • Creating a survey form.

  • Statistical data is being gathered.

  • Data auditing and coding

  • Missing meaning imputation and data processing

  • Estimation based on statistics

  • Analyze data.

  • The act of disseminating information.

Here are some examples of statistical surveys of businesses or local governments that are subject to these controls:

  • Surveys with the aim of obtaining aggregated data

  • Surveys in which answers are elicited by approaching potential respondents directly.

  • Consultants or private organizations conduct surveys with departmental sponsors.

  • Customer satisfaction surveys are used to determine a product's or service's overall performance.

Statistical surveys are not limited to those performed by statistics divisions and do not often require the completion of a form. Telephone and face-to-face interviews are also included.

What Factors Do You Consider When Deciding Which Sampling Tool to Use?

To achieve the study's objectives, it's critical to choose the right sampling tool for your analysis. The efficacy of your sampling is determined by a number of factors. Here are some of the measures that skilled researchers take to determine the best sampling process.

  • Make a list of your research objectives. In most cases, it has to be a combination of price, precision, and accuracy.

  • Determine the most appropriate sampling methods for achieving the study objectives.

  • Examine each of these approaches to see if they assist you in achieving your target.

  • Choose the research approach that works best for you.

FAQs on Survey Sampling Methods

1. How to Select a Sample?

Ans: Identifying the population is the first and most critical step in choosing a sample. A sample must be chosen after the population has been identified. A good example of a strong sample is as follows

  • The size is small.

  • It provides sufficient data on the entire population.

  • It takes less time and is less expensive to collect.

2. What is Sampling?

Ans: A sample is a subset of individuals from a larger population. Sampling refers to the process of choosing the people from which you will obtain data for your study. For example, if you want to learn about the views of your university's students, you might conduct a survey of 100 students.

3. Define Census.

Ans: A census is a compilation of data from all units of the population, also known as a "total enumeration". If we need reliable data for a large number of subgroups of the population, we use a census. A census is also the best choice for such a survey because it needs a broad sample size.