In mathematics, especially in arithmetic, we usually run over with squares and cube of numbers while taking care of mathematic issues.

**What is a square?**

**Perfect Square**

**Uses of algebra**• Algebra helps you in your career

• It is a powerful tool which generalises situations

• It helps you think logically

• It is very important for modern technology

**History of cubes**

**Properties of Perfect Cubes**

• Check if the given number is a natural number, if yes then keep going.

• Find the prime factors of the number.

• Group the factors in triplets, in such a way that each triplet has three same factors.

• If no factor is left after grouping than the number is a perfect cube.

**Examples of Perfect cube concept.**

**CUBE ROOTS**

A square is a flat shape with four equal sides having a 90^{0 }angle in every interior.

Diagram of a square

Diagram of a square

A square of a number is acquired by multiplying a specific number to itself. We can say that an ideal square is a number which is obtained by the increase of a number without any other number.

For instance,

4 = 2 x 2

25 = 5 x 5

For instance,

4 = 2 x 2

25 = 5 x 5

Some of the properties of Perfect Squares are:

1. Perfect squares do not have a unit digit of 2, 3, or 7.

2. All even square numbers are divisible by 4.

3. The difference of 2 odd squares is a multiple of 8.

**What is a Cube?**

A Cube is a three-dimensional figure whose edges are of the same length. The volume of a cuboid is given by the product of its measurements.

**Diagram of a cube**

**Perfect cube**

1. Perfect squares do not have a unit digit of 2, 3, or 7.

2. All even square numbers are divisible by 4.

3. The difference of 2 odd squares is a multiple of 8.

A Cube is a three-dimensional figure whose edges are of the same length. The volume of a cuboid is given by the product of its measurements.

The idea of a Perfect Cube is a build up to the idea of a perfect square. The thing that matters is that in cubes, we increase a number thrice. The perfect cube of a number can be characterized as the number obtained by multiplying a number by itself two times.

For example, 8 is known as a perfect cube number because it is obtained by multiplying 2 thrice;

i.e. 8 = 2 x 2 x 2.

i.e. 8 = 2 x 2 x 2.

We may consider a perfect cube as a cube of each side measuring x units and the volume of such cube will be x^{3} cubic units.

Numbers like 2^{3} = 8, 3^{3} = 27, 4^{3} = 64, then the numbers 8, 27, 64 are termed as perfect cubes.

Numbers like 2

Therefore, a number is defined as a perfect cube, if it is a cube of another natural number.
Suppose that a and b are two different natural numbers, then a is said to be a perfect cube of b if
a = b x b x b i.e. a = b^{3}

Let’s go ahead and understand more about perfect cubes.

Cubes are an important part of Algebra.

Algebra is the section of mathematics which deals with symbols and rules for control of these symbols. In elementary algebra the symbols are known as variables which do not have fixed values. These variables form equations which then describe the relationship between them.

Algebra is the section of mathematics which deals with symbols and rules for control of these symbols. In elementary algebra the symbols are known as variables which do not have fixed values. These variables form equations which then describe the relationship between them.

Calculation of the cubes of large numbers was very common in many ancient civilizations. By the old Babylonian period (20^{th} to 16^{th} centuries BC), the Mesopotamian Mathematicians invented cuneiform tablets with tables for calculating cubes and cube roots. The ancient Greek Diophantus also knew about the Cubic equations. The hero of Alexandria designed a method for calculating cube roots in the 1^{st} Century. The methods for solving cubic equations and calculating cube roots are mentioned in the nine Chapters of the Mathematical Art. Our own respected mathematician Aryabhata wrote an Explanation of cubes. In 2010 Alberto Zanoni found a faster squaring and multiplying way to calculate the cube of a long integer in a certain range.

1. The cube value of an even number will always be an even number.

For instance,

4^{3} = 4 x 4 x 4 = 64

2^{3} = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8

2. The cube value of an odd number will always be an odd number.

4

2

2. The cube value of an odd number will always be an odd number.

For instance,

3^{3} = 3 x 3 x 3 = 27

7^{3} = 7 x 7 x 7 = 343

3

7

3. The cubes of numbers which end in 0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, often give the result in the same digits.

For instance,

10^{3} = 1000 ends in 0

11^{3} = 1331 ends in 1

14^{3} = 2744 ends in 4

5^{3} = 125 ends in 5

16^{3} = 4096 ends in 6

19^{3} = 6859 ends in 9

4. One of the most vital property is that the sum of first and successive natural number’s cubes is same as the whole square of their sum.

1^{3}+2^{3}+3^{3}+4^{3}…+n^{3} = (1+2+3+…+n)^{2}

10

11

14

5

16

19

4. One of the most vital property is that the sum of first and successive natural number’s cubes is same as the whole square of their sum.

1

Have a look at following example:

1^{3}+2^{3}+3^{3} = 1 + 8 + 27 = 36 and (1+2+3)^{2} = (6)^{2} = 36

5. The cube of a rational number is equal to the ratio of the cubes of the numerator to the denominator. i.e., (xy)3=x3y3

For example,

To find whether a number is a perfect cube or not the steps mentioned below should be used:

1

5. The cube of a rational number is equal to the ratio of the cubes of the numerator to the denominator. i.e., (xy)3=x3y3

For example,

To find whether a number is a perfect cube or not the steps mentioned below should be used:

1. Is 512 a perfect cube? Find its cube root.

Solution:

By factorizing 512 into prime factors, we get

512 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

After grouping the numbers in triplets, we get

512 = (2 x 2 x 2) x (2 x 2 x 2) x (2 x 2 x 2)

Hence 512 is a perfect cube as no number is leftover.

Taking one number from each group,

Therefore, 512 is the perfect cube of 8.

2. Calculate whether 9261 is a perfect cube.

Solution:

After factorizing 9261 into prime factors, we get

9261 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 7 x 7

Group these numbers into triplets

9261 = (3 x 3 x 3) x (7 x 7 x 7)

No number is leftover, so 9261 is a perfect cube.

Taking one number from each group,

Hence, 9261 is the perfect cube of 21.

3. Find the smallest number by which 1323 shall be multiplied in order to build a perfect cube?

Solution:

Factorizing 1323 into prime factors, we get

1323 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 7

Now to group these factors into triplets, one more 7 is needed. Hence, 7 is the smallest number which should be multiplied to 1323 to make it a perfect cube.

4. What would be the smallest number by which the number 1375 should be divided to make the quotient a perfect cube? Find the quotient and its cube root.

Solution:

We have

1375 = 11 x 5 x 5 x 5

1375 = 11 x (5 x 5 x 5)

11 is leftover which means that if we divide 1375 by 11, then the quotient will be a perfect cube.

Dividing 1375 by 11, we get

The number is 125 and 5 is its cube root.

Perfect Cubes of first 50 natural numbers are as follows:

1. 1 = 1 x 1 x 1 = 1^{3}

2. 8 = 2 x 2 x 2= 2^{3}

3. 27 = 3 x 3 x 3= 3^{3}

4. 64 = 4 x 4 x 4 = 4^{3}

5. 125 = 5 x 5 x 5 = 5^{3}

6. 216 = 6 x 6 x 6= 6^{3}

7. 343 = 7 × 7 × 7 = 7^{3}

8. 512 = 8 × 8 × 8 = 8^{3}

9. 729 = 9 × 9 × 9 = 9^{3}

10. 1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 10^{3}

11. 1331 = 11 × 11 × 11 = 11^{3}

12. 1728 = 12 × 12 × 12 = 12^{3}

13. 2197 = 13 × 13 × 13 = 13^{3}

14. 2744 = 14 × 14 × 14 = 14^{3}

15. 3375 = 15 × 15 × 15 = 15^{3}

16. 4096 = 16 × 16 × 16 = 16^{3}

17. 4913 = 17 × 17 × 17 = 17^{3}

18. 5832 = 18 × 18 × 18 = 18^{3}

19. 6859 = 19 × 19 × 19 = 19^{3}

20. 8000 = 20 × 20 × 20 = 20^{3}

21. 9261 = 21 × 21 × 21 = 21^{3}

22. 10648 = 22 × 22 × 22 = 22^{3}

23. 12167 = 23 × 23 × 23 = 23^{3}

24. 13824 = 24 × 24 × 24 = 24^{3}

25. 15625 = 25 × 25 × 25 = 25^{3}

26. 17576 = 26 × 26 × 26 = 26^{3}

27. 19683 = 27 × 27 × 27 = 27^{3}

28. 21952 = 28 × 28 × 28 = 28^{3}

29. 24389 = 29 × 29 × 29 = 29^{3}

30. 27000 = 30 × 30 × 30 = 30^{3}

31. 29791 = 31 × 31 × 31 = 31^{3}

32. 32768 = 32 × 32 × 32 = 32^{3}

33. 35937 = 33 × 33 × 33 = 33^{3}

34. 39304 = 34 × 34 × 34 = 34^{3}

35. 42875 = 35 × 35 × 35 = 35^{3}

36. 46656 = 36 × 36 × 36 = 36^{3}

37. 50653 = 37 × 37 × 37 = 37^{3}

38. 54872 = 38 × 38 × 38 = 38^{3}

39. 59319 = 39 × 39 × 39 = 39^{3}

40. 64000 = 40 × 40 × 40 = 40^{3}

41. 68921 = 41 × 41 × 41 = 41^{3}

42. 74088 = 42 × 42 × 42 = 42^{3}

43. 79507 = 43 × 43 × 43 = 43^{3}

44. 85184 = 44 × 44 × 44 = 44^{3}

45. 91125 = 45 × 45 × 45 = 45^{3}

46. 97336 = 46 × 46 × 46 = 46^{3}

47. 103823 = 47 × 47 × 47 = 47^{3}

48. 110592 = 48 × 48 × 48 = 48^{3}

49. 117649 = 49 × 49 × 49 = 49^{3}

50. 125000 = 50 × 50 × 50 = 50^{3}

**SQUARE ROOTS**

A square root is a number which gives a specified quantity when multiplied by itself.

The square of the number 3 is 9 and the square root of 9 is 3. Square and square root are inversely related.

Method to find the square root of a number is as follows: To find the square root of a number, find some number that when multiplied by itself gives the original number.

For example, to find the square root of 9, find the number that when multiplied by itself gives 9, which is 3, because 3 x 3 = 9.

**SYMBOL OF SQUARE ROOT**

Solution:

By factorizing 512 into prime factors, we get

512 = 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2

After grouping the numbers in triplets, we get

512 = (2 x 2 x 2) x (2 x 2 x 2) x (2 x 2 x 2)

Hence 512 is a perfect cube as no number is leftover.

Taking one number from each group,

Therefore, 512 is the perfect cube of 8.

2. Calculate whether 9261 is a perfect cube.

Solution:

After factorizing 9261 into prime factors, we get

9261 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 7 x 7

Group these numbers into triplets

9261 = (3 x 3 x 3) x (7 x 7 x 7)

No number is leftover, so 9261 is a perfect cube.

Taking one number from each group,

Hence, 9261 is the perfect cube of 21.

3. Find the smallest number by which 1323 shall be multiplied in order to build a perfect cube?

Solution:

Factorizing 1323 into prime factors, we get

1323 = 3 x 3 x 3 x 7 x 7

Now to group these factors into triplets, one more 7 is needed. Hence, 7 is the smallest number which should be multiplied to 1323 to make it a perfect cube.

4. What would be the smallest number by which the number 1375 should be divided to make the quotient a perfect cube? Find the quotient and its cube root.

Solution:

We have

1375 = 11 x 5 x 5 x 5

1375 = 11 x (5 x 5 x 5)

11 is leftover which means that if we divide 1375 by 11, then the quotient will be a perfect cube.

Dividing 1375 by 11, we get

The number is 125 and 5 is its cube root.

Perfect Cubes of first 50 natural numbers are as follows:

A square root is a number which gives a specified quantity when multiplied by itself.

The square of the number 3 is 9 and the square root of 9 is 3. Square and square root are inversely related.

Method to find the square root of a number is as follows: To find the square root of a number, find some number that when multiplied by itself gives the original number.

For example, to find the square root of 9, find the number that when multiplied by itself gives 9, which is 3, because 3 x 3 = 9.

Here are some examples of Perfect square root

A cube root is the number that multiplies by itself 3 times to create a cubic value. Cube roots like the perfect cube equations were created and used for calculation by the Babylonian mathematicians.

The cube of the number 2 is 8 and the cube root of 8 is 2. Cubes and cube roots are inversely related.

Method to find the cube root of a number are as follows: In order to find the cube root of a number, find some number that when multiplied by itself twice gives you the original number. For instance, to find the cube root of 8, find the number that when multiplied by itself twice gives 8, which is 2, because 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

**SYMBOL OF CUBE ROOT**

Method to find the cube root of a number are as follows: In order to find the cube root of a number, find some number that when multiplied by itself twice gives you the original number. For instance, to find the cube root of 8, find the number that when multiplied by itself twice gives 8, which is 2, because 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

Here are some examples of perfect whole number cube roots.