# Graphs and Graphical Representation

## What are Graphs and Graphical Representation?

Graphical representation refers to the use of charts and graphs to visually analyze and display, interpret numerical value, clarify the qualitative structures. The data is represented by a variety of symbols such as line charts, bars, circles, ratios. Through this, greater insight is stuck in the mind while analyzing the information.

Graphs can easily illustrate the behavior, highlight changes, and can study data points that may sometimes be overlooked. The type of data presentation depends upon the type of data being used.

## Graphical Representation of Data

The graphical representation is simply a way of analyzing numerical data. It comprises a relation between data, information, and ideas in a diagram. Anything portrayed in a graphical manner is easy to understand and is also termed as the most important learning technique. The graphical presentation is always dependent on the type of information conveyed. There are different types of graphical representation. These are as follows:

1. ### Line Graphs:

Also denoted as linear graphs are used to examine continuous data and are also useful in predicting future events in time.

1. ### Histograms:

This graph uses bars to represent the information. The bars represent the frequency of numerical data. All intervals are equal and hence, the width of each bar is also equal.

1. ### Bar Graphs:

These are used to display the categories and compare the data using solid bars. These bars represent the quantities.

1. ### Frequency Table:

This table shows the frequency of data that falls within that given time interval.

1. ### Line Plot:

It shows the frequency of data on a given line number.

1. ### Circle Graph:

It is also known as a pie chart and shows the relationship between the parts of the whole. The circle consists of 100% and other parts shown are in different proportions.

1. ### Scatter Plot:

The diagram shows the relationship between two sets of data. Each dot represents individual information of the data.

1. ### Venn Diagram:

It consists of overlapping circles, each depicting a set. The inner-circle made is a graphical representation.

1. ### Stem and Leaf Plot:

The data is organized from the least value to the highest value. The digits of the least place value form the leaf and that of the highest place value form the stem.

1. ### Box and Whisker Plot:

The data is summarised by dividing it into four parts. Box and whisker show the spread and median of the data.

### Graphical Presentation of Data - Definition

It is a way of analyzing numerical data. It is a sort of chart which shows statistical data in the form of lines or curves which are plotted on the surface. It enables studying the cause and effect relationships between two variables. It helps to measure the extent of change in one variable when another variable changes.

### Principles of Graphical Representation

The variables in the graph are represented using two lines called coordinate axes. The horizontal and vertical axes are denoted by x and y respectively. Their point of intersection is called an origin ‘O’. Considering x-axes, the distance from the origin to the right will take a positive value, and the distance from the origin to the left will take a negative value. Taking the same procedure on y-axes. The points above origin will take the positive values and the points below origin will take negative values. As discussed in the earlier section about the types of graphical representation. There are four most widely used graphs namely histogram, pie diagram, frequency polygon, and ogive frequency graph.

### Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

There are certain rules to effectively represent the information in graphical form. Certain rules are discussed below:

1. Title: One has to make sure that a suitable title is given to the graph which indicates the presentation subject.

2. Scale: It should be used efficiently to represent data in an accurate manner.

3. Measurement unit: It is used to calculate the distance between the box

4. Index: Differentiate appropriate colors, shades, and design I graph for a better understanding of the information conveyed.

5. Data sources: Include the source of information at the bottom graph wherever necessary. It adds to the authenticity of the information.

6. Keep it simple: Construct the graph in an easy to understand manner and keep it simple for the reader to understand. Looking at the graph the information portrayed is easily understandable.

### Importance of Graphical Representation of Data

Some of the importance and advantages of using graphs to interpret data are listed below:

1. The graph is easiest to understand as the information portrayed is in facts and figures. Any information depicted in facts, figures, comparison grabs our attention, due to which they are memorizable for the long term.

2. It allows us to relate and compare data for different time periods.

3. It is used in statistics to determine the mean, mode, and median of different data.

4. It saves a lot of time as it covers most of the information in facts and figures. This in turn compacts the information.

Ans: These graphical presentations of data are vital components in analyzing the information. Data visualization is one of the most fundamental approaches to data representation. Its advantages include the following points:

1. Facilitates and improves learning

2. Flexibility of use

3. Understands content

4. Increase structure thinking

5. Supports creative thinking

6. Portrays the whole picture

7. Improves communication

With advantages, certain disadvantages are also linked to the graphical representation. The disadvantages concern the high cost of human effort, the process of selecting the most appropriate graphical and tabular presentation, creative thinking, greater design to interpret information, visualizing data, and as human resource is used. The potential for human bias plays a huge role.

Q2. What is the Graphical Representation of Data in Statistics?

Graphs are powerful data evaluation tools. They provide a quick visual summary of the information. In statistics information depicted is of mean, mode, and median. Box plots, histograms are used to depict the information. These graphs provide information about ranges, shapes, concentration, extreme values, etc. It studies information between different sets and trends whether increasing or decreasing. Since graphical methods are qualitative, they are not only the basis of comparison and information.